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the springs of the rivers Atua and Anabiju, until the Bay of Marajo, near Porto

Salvo. Lake Arari, in addition to its numerous tributaries, and most of the swamps, find themselves in the northeast.

Rio Arari

Here forest groves are rare, and are grouped, like islands, between Sarcais or Hervais. The other areas, open and low, which, crossing canals until far inland,

Igapo grove in the flooded forest

Igapo grove in the flooded forest

are lined with Igapo groves, where we found, in several places, banks of shells.

Shell bank on Marajo island

For example, along the margin of the river Canaticu, Molluscs were found, which the Indians call Cernambis. There are no vestiges on the northern and eastern coasts where shells are crushed for use. Shells that are whole are sent to Lisbon, as ballast. Monteiro ( “Roteiro", page 17) states that these fossil shells, which unfortunately we have not seen, appear also west of the continent, in Tocantins, between Cameta and the hole of the Limoeiro, like along the Maracana rivers and Marapani, on the coast of the ocean. From these circumstances it is apparent that this whole island was not completely formed by soil from the river; It must be believed that only the northeast part was torn from the land by the river; To the contrary, the southwest part, formerly covered by the sea, dried up, continuing to accumulate land, brought by the river. The northeast side, covered with grasses, belongs, according to its physical conditions, to the district of Macapa,

where the grasslands extend fields far in the distance to the Caba Orange; The covered part of the forest, on the other hand, belongs to the southern continent of Belem do Para. Above all, in those fields, they raise enormous quantities of oxen and horses. The two government farms, Arari and Chaves, possess 40,000 heads of cattle; 30,000 at Arari, in addition to 10,000 horses.


Also the Carmelites of Para and the mercenaries, whose convent later joined with the Maranhao convent, of the same order, possess several ranches formerly belonging to the Jesuits, and one can calculate the cost of its abundant creations, which are blamed for the Bishop Brandao having been de-frocked. Consider the fact that each mercenary soldier (of the Order of "La Pieta ", as it is called in Rome) receives, daily, six to twelve pounds of beef. One ox is worth 4000 to 5000 cruzados; A horse, from 6000 to 10000; A mare, which until now is not employed for any service, only profits from 1000 to 2000. The daily rations for the Army and Navy are provided by the two aforementioned farms, and even the salted fish is provided by the fishing grounds kept there at the expense of the government. I already mentioned that the capital of Belem is also supplied by the island. The fishing in the lagoons of the island and on its shores is very productive and was formerly exploited by a company headquartered in Belem. The annual income from taxes, paid by the tenants of the same, amounts to, according to reports, 200,000 or 300,000 cruzados.