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Footnote IV continued from page 44

import cotton, Cocoa, coffee, Salsaparilla, Maranho chestnuts, yellow wood, hides.

Sent in exchange articles of : cotton, linen, ham, cod, salt, butter, beer Porter, cheeses, glassware, clay, iron, metals, copper, lead, aluminum, tin articles, gunpowder and bullets, machines, paints (colors), distilling apparatus, cables and ropes, Iona, paints, oil for painting, articles for medicine, paper, anchors, cables, hats, clothes, cloths, shoes and some flour.

The English islands in the West Indies receive: rice, cocoa, cattle, horses, wood, also cassava flour and maize when this is not forbidden by the Government; England sends in return: flour and money.

Gibraltar receives what goes to England and also carnation and cinnamon, spices and cords (moorings), palm ropes; Gibraltor sends in return: wine, brandy, olive oil, dried fruit and aniz in Portuguese merchant ships from the Orient.

France receives the same articles as England; France sends in return: wine, olive oil, lace, silk articles, brandy, canned fruits, jewelry articles, paper, flour, wax candles, glass articles, toys, paintings, hats, and corduroy fabrics.

North America receives from Para: Skins and cocoa; In return: Wheat flour, spermacete candles, Geneva, cod, butter, ropes, string, tar, Pez, colophonio, furniture, domestic items and slats.

Rolanda receives the same articles that England receives from Para; Sends: Geneva, Articles of glass, paper, furniture, machetes, and linen articles.

Portugal. The main articles of commerce it receives are the following: Rice, cotton, cocoa, coffee, yellow stick, spices Cinnamon powder, salsaparilla; Nuts and naval construction woods. Paddles from Para: wine, brandy, olive oil, articles of the East Indies, linen and cotton fabrics, hats, particularly those of inferior quality, wheat flour, biscuits, anise seeds, liqueurs, medicines, hams, cod, dry fruits, Geneva, Cordamon, Iona, calcareous stone, butter, music instruments, statues, carriages, copper utensils, shoes, weapons, machetes, garrisons for military uniforms, gun powder, acorns, Tar and Pez. The trade between Para and Portugal had progressed, constantly increasing. In the last decades of the past century and in the first of it; But after the king of Portugal settled In Rio de Janeiro and promised the freedom of the ports, much of this trade was with England, which was proved by the great presence of English ships in the Brazilian ports. A positive idea of this state of things is given in the tables that follow.

In the past, the trade abandoned Para, preferring its neighbor Maranhao. The Portuguese merchant fleets were docking at Maranhao from the beginning, and, only after the port was made free a few months ago, did they go to Para. Over time, this changed because a part of the charstreets came directly to Para. The Trade Authority of Grao-Para and Maranhao was more unfavorable to Para than to Maranhiio, since they are the traders forced to buy the European goods by the price determined by the company, a measure always put into practice, which was particularly harmful to Para, because of the uneducated population.

(V) Of some of the plants and Exotics cultivated in Para, we think we owe our readers the following observations:
The chilli of India (Piper nigrum, L.) had already been, by the Jesuits, imported from Timor and Macao to Brazil; And, in the second volume, we cite the oldest plantations found in the garden of the Hospital dos Lazaros, Bahia. These are seed plants; But, preferably, it should go in the ground as a seedling with a plumb line and a stake. A chili seedling should be half rod to a foot of size and containing three to four eyes. They particularly favored a muddy, fat, ferruginous, well-cleansed soil of herbs.

Piper nigrum

45