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Dutch expulsion 1615

(3) the Portuguese after having expelled the French from the island of Maranhao, in 1615, deemed it necessary to build a fortification in the Amazon River. In fact, since Francisco Orellana sailed this river in 1541, there were many rumors about the great settlement and the lushness of the adjacent lands, and the Dutch showed that they wanted to take over the territory. It was for this reason in Maranhao, in 1615, Francisco Caldeira, finding himself in the wrong position in the cove of Guajara, on the southern bank of the Amazon, founded there that same year the city of Belem.

Francisco Caldeira

They found the colonists in the vast virgin forests. Many hordes of Indians distinguished themselves by their moderate habits and seemed to favor the establishment of the colony. More numerous among all was the nation of the

Tupinambis today

Tupinambis also emigrated here, coming from the regions to the south of Pernambuco and Ceara; And the tribes of Pacaiases, Mamaiases, Guianases, Taramambases and Ingaibases inhabited the coastline between the rivers Turiacu and Caete; The ingaibases, were from the island of Marajo and the others, farther inland.

All these hordes sailed in small canoes (igaras), dug in a trunk, graced in general with war trophies and noise makers. They were known by the name of their boat, Iguaruanas.


Further inland, especially in the neighborhood of the other band of the Tocantins River, there lived hordes of the tribes of the Busejes (Canaguet-Jes, Norogua-Jes, Apina-Jes), which, as well as the small hordes of the Pochetis and Amanius, dominate also now in the regions of the province of Maranhao and in the forests of Para, between the rivers Turiacu and Tocantins.

Rio Tocatins

At that time these primitive inhabitants were, not rarely, obliged to replace blacks in the farming works and other heavy burdens. The new settlers sought to establish themselves and cultivate the land by means of the Indians, guaranteeing their service with threats of hanging for their disobedience. The system of enslaving the Indians, attacking them and making them prisoners, was already employed in Brazil, in the first colonies of Portuguese in the province of Sao Paulo. In fact, there where the kings of Portugal recognized the freedom of the Indians, decreed by D. Sebastiao, in 1570, and by D. Filipe Ill, in 1605, that only the cannibals and the Indians imprisoned in war by the government would be enslaved.

Indian slaves

All the others, however, would be considered free, and could not be forced, against their will, to do any work. The colonists, however, continued their raids, and were finally able to convince the crown that the enslavement of the Indians was indispensable.

Don Philip III

Coincidently Don Philip III withdrew, in 1611, the law which had declared the end of slavery, and not only declared the Indians as slaves who were imprisoned because of war. but also decreed the reinstitution of slavery. He also consented that the settlers could buy the Indian prisoners, and recommended the employment of Indians, under the direction of the whites, in the establishment of the colonies.

According to these legal determinations, a large number of Indians were employed in the Portuguese colonies. The ambitious pride of the Indians led the most enterprising settlers to far places, by way of the rivers in the state of Grao-Para, and thus contributed, undoubtedly, to the geographic knowledge of the country. To this end, Manuel Pires undertook, in the years 1656 and 1657, two trips, one to the mouth of the Rio Negro, and from there brought more than 1000 Indians to the city of Belem, and took at the same time possession of those remote regions for the crown of Portugal. Shortly thereafter, he established on the beaches of the Negro River a detachment of rescue soldiers, in charge of protecting the trafficking of slavery in those places, and, later, the foundation of the village of Barra do Rio Negro was established, whose fortification was built in the government of Antonio de Albuquerque Coelho (1), in 1671.

These areas were established for the Juripixunas or Juruumas ( "black faced ") tribes related

(1) Antonio de Albuquerque Coelho de Carvalho (The Old Man), was the son of Francisco Coelho de Carvalho, the first governor of the state of Maranhao (1626-1631).

Antonio de Albuquerque Coelho de Carvalho

He was born in Brazil. He managed that northern colony of Brazil from 1667 to 1671. His son, Homonimo Antonio de Albuquerque Coelho de Carvalho, was also governor of that state, from 1690 to 1702. This is the same governor of the captaincy of Sao Paulo and Minas do Ouro, created by the king’s decree of November 3, 1709. He was replaced by Don Bras Baltasar da Silveira, because he had to take over the government of Rio de Janeiro in 1711, combining power with Francisco de Castro Morais, in the consequence of the invasion of the fleet of Duguay • Trouin. (Crème da Rev. , Ins. Hist. and Geogr. Bras.).