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proponents and rarity, it also contains many documents from the civilization of the peoples of Mexico and Peru : lamps, urns, metal weapons, house idols, silver tooth and leaflet spinners, figures engraved on gold blades, diadems (machapaichos), etc.

These objects, all of rough work, do not correspond to the high idea, which, according to the most ancient news, is the civilization of those peoples. In any case, they displayed a higher civilization than we find among the primitive inhabitants of Brazil; but it always translates a certain kinship of culture and industry between those historical peoples and the current hordes that live seemingly without history. To ignore the history of the discoveries, which the Spanish nation made in the New World, and Europeans who early historians wrongly reported the news of their century, it is indeed necessary to make comparative views for the primitive state of the rest of America. The arrival of the cold season of the year forced us to shorten our stay in Madrid;

Plateau of Castille

We left the plateau of old Castile and descended to the beautiful meadows of Valencia, only touched by autumn. From there, the journey continued through Tarragona, after passing the merchant city of Barcelona.


We climbed the southern slope of the Pyrenees, and entered France by Perpignan. From Lyon we reached Alsace, where we understood the mother tongue;

Passing through Strasbourg, we sailed over the Rhine, and with the most intimate joy we were able to breathe the German air again. On December 10, 1820, we arrived with happiness, after almost four years of absence, the capital of Bavaria.

In concluding here the list of the facts of our trip to Brazil and its general results, it seems convenient to further show how it seeks to correspond to our special duties in botany and zoology. Brazil, closed for consecutive centuries to European investigations, offered the opportunity to enrich those sciences with facts, and as to the means to achieve this goal, we had no choice. It seemed more appropriate for us to collect, during the trip, copies of both orogenic formations and ethnographic wonders, and, in particular, of animals and plants, giving our daily descriptions and detailed news, as we could, and thanks to all that, once back in the country, prepare a detailed scientific exposition.

Royal Academy of Sciences

Specimens of natural history and ethnography collected in Brazil were placed at the Museum of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Munich. What has been obtained from zoology consists of 85 mammalian species,

350 bird species,

130 amphibian species,

116 fish species,

and 270 insect species.

Of this last class, 180 lepteros, 120 orthopteros, 30 neuropteroes, 120 himenopteros, 120 lepteros