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instead of capao,

Groves of trees, or "capao"

field vegetation appears similar to that of the Piaui wilds.


The virgin forest is everywhere from the same feature to fields of shrubbery of varying heights often stunted by the uneven and tightly unruly and evergreen climbing vines of the most varied foliage.

There are 3 different regions: the high ground cape, ibu (aegwu) -rete also ybil-tera-caa; that of marginal lands, subject to flooding, caa-ygapo pupe-caa ("land-in-the-water forest"), and the flora of the sand islands in the river. As these regions differ from each other in soil, each one is characterized by its particular plants. In the highland forest, vegetation sometimes transforms into contiguous meadows in the jungle,

surrounded by shrubs, and by many plants as well as the general appearance of their vico. stoned from the south.

Many of the natural plants are, according to their appearance in the Amazon River region, in three groups: 1) plants that predominate over a large number of species and individuals; 2) others where they appear are few genera: specials and 3) those that are represented by relatively few species almost none.

l) Predominant families: Legumes, particularly Mimosaceas and Cassias, Terebintaceas, Melastomaceas, Mirtaceas, Chrysobalineas, Combretaceas, Rutaceas, Samideas, Bombaceas, Tiliaceas, Bixinias, Jonidias, Voquisiaceas, Oxalideas, Ternstromiaceas, Gutiferouseas, Gutta Ampelideas, Malpigiaceas, Sapindaceas, Hippocrats, Menispermeaceas, Dilenaceas, Anonaceas, Loranteas, Rubiaceas, Styracineas, Sapotaceas, Mirsineas, Apocineas, Asclepiadaceas, Bignoniaceas, Convolvulaceas, Sebesteneas, Cucuraceas, Solanaceas, Urticaceas, Piperaceas, Orchids, Bromeliaceas, Aroidias, Smilaceas, Palmaceas, Gramiraceas, Ciperaceas, Ferns, Lycopodiaceas, Eutofilineas, Fungus.

Palmacea ingazeiro

2) Less abundant, as represented by various genera or species, are: Rhamneas, Celastrineas, Salicareas, Turneraceas, Cactaceas, Zigofileaceas, Polygaleaceas, Alcaparraceas, Araliaceas, Composites (in particular the Heliantaceas group), Lobeliaceas, Ebenaceas, Gentian, Hydrolaceas, Heliotropiceaceas, Amarantaceas, Begnoniaceas, Aristology, Ninfeaceas, Liliaceas, Amarilidaceas, Pontederiaceas, Lichenes, Mosses.

Lichen on stones

3) Very rare, especially in the sense of richness of families in species, appear Onagreaceas, properly flowers of Malvaceas,


Portulaca pilosa

Paronychia, Geraniaceas,



Valeriana officinalis




Polemonium, the phlox


Labiatea macrocarpa, center


Chenopodea, the goosefoot


Nictaginea, the Mirabilis jalapa


Proteacea, the Pincushion Hakea

Miricineas (Thoa),



Thymelacea, the thyme

Restionaceas (Hyphydras),

Restionacea, the Elegia capensis


Iridea, the Iris


Strelitzia juncea

From the following families I have not found any members: Saxifrageas, Scales, Ribesias, Grassulaceas, Linaceas, Cariofilaceas, Ranunculaceas, Cruciferas, Magnoliacea, Caprifoliacea. Campanulaceas, Umbeliferas, Borragineas, Didimocarpeas, Lentibularias, Globularias, Plantagineas, Frangulineas: Betulaceas, Coniferas, Cicadeas and Dipterocarpeas. From this synopsis it appears that there are no sociable plants there, occupying exclusively whole territories, as well as coniferous species or the Francheniaceae of the Asian steppes.

Representatives of the most diverse families are variegated, side by side; the shores where grasses thrive in great abundance,

and on the islands where the willow (Salix Humboldtiana),

Embauba (Cecropia peltata),

and Munguba (Bombax munguba)

grow profusely together, and the Northern monotony is repeated. The preponderance of pinnate trees and a bright green sap (Leguminosa, Rubiaceas, Laurineas) give the branch a look, sometimes delicate, sometimes resplendent and lush. The landscape is missing, besides, the alternatives of grandiose aspects, in a territory so soft, that it does not present almost any rocks, much less a mountain. Also the unique forms of cactus

Cactus speciosissi

and tree ferns,

Tree ferns

which appear so frequently in the southern regions, disappear here. Sensitive and, finally, the lack, above all, of the flowers of

Malvaceas, the Malva umbellata

Cruciferae, the Nasturtium

Umbeliferae, the Eryngiums

Labiadae, the Hyptis Martiusiii


and Compositae, the Coccoloba gigantifolia

Non-tree plants seem to be poorly favored on warm, equatorial lands, where rich soils determine tree growth to great heights.