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Perhaps even once the southern slope of the Serra de Parime had been sprayed by an inland sea, if it is true that in the Rio Branco corals are found.

Serra de Parime

Taking all these facts together, it seems to us that this lower region of the great Amazon Basin

is a part of the surface of our land that few catastrophes suffer; and, perhaps for this very reason, given to uninterrupted peace, it has become all the more prone to develop in its pebbled soil many organic forms, which are overshadowed with virgin, high and impenetrable forests which revive the forest with the multitude of more varied animals. All the places where the tertiary formation deepened, became so many natural accumulators of water, in which springs or lakes arose, fed by copious equatorial rains, enriching the luxuriant kingdom of plants, favored with immediate feeding by the dominant sun. It is the decomposition of the stone that forms the humus, which must, moreover, result with the succession of such large genera of plants. In the granite or limestone soil of the provinces of Bahia, Pernambuco and others, as far as Ceara to the north, it seems that violent waves of the sea have robbed the surface in different directions; only a slight layer of granitic sand and dust accumulates here, in vast expanses, on the stratification of the primeval mountain; and, therefore, the water poor land can only produce virgin forests in the highlands, for example, the Serra de Ibiapaba

Serra de Ibiapaba

(in Tupi "all earth", to say that it is more bare than clothed with weeds); the rest of the soil, equally weakened, and covered with parched pasture or dense carrascos and caatinga. Perhaps similar catastrophes have acted on the growth of those plants, which currently line the surface of Minas Gerais' lands in large stretches.

Etching 10 Catinga vegetation-semi-arid

Here we find hyaline quartz sand-white sandstone on extensive heaths,


sometimes fragments of ancient gravel mixed with mud and humus, on a surface rich in sources that produces palm groves,



and humus, or isolated woods (cadapuam ). We now ask: - What was the grand catastrophe that, vastly extended, led to such changes as it did to the destruction of early gold deposits or the disintegration of diamonds from its matrix? Deep secret covers that period in the history of the formation of our planet. The simple and variant kingdom of stone before us can only give little idea of the past.

This monotony of Brazil's geognostic structure stands in stark contrast to the rich orogenic formation of Chile and Peru.

In Brazil, we see no active volcanoes, no alternatives to plutonic, volcanic, and Neptune formations, or orogenic formation signaled by particular animal remains, or rich layers of charcoal. From the period of the most violent and transformative orogenic pressure, the epoch of the transition, there were no testimonies left; The latest catastrophes of the Tertiary epoch also have few transformations left, but these are scattered to a greater extent. The animal life of the primitive world is found exclusively in the remains of the colossi, the Paraguay megatery,

Paraguay megatery

the mamut and megalonix

Megalonix, the giant sloth

of the saltpeter caves of Minas Gerais, the Rio das Contas and the muddy bottom of the granitic lands of terraces, Bahia, Pernambuco, and Ceara, as if the lower animal forms of the old days either did not exist here or were exterminated by subsequent cataclysms, disappearing without a trace.

Vegetation of the Amazon River Basin - We have long mentioned various forms of the plant world, also in the geognostic sense. The vegetation of the Amazon is to be considered as its own formation, as an independent flora, marked by natural limits, particularly confirmed by the presence of many plants unique to this basin. In general, the flora of the Amazon corresponds to that of French Guiana, which Aublet made known. A detailed description of this flora, particularly according to the individual plant families, which predominate here, which appear little or hardly appear, is, however, outside the limits of our work. Only a general glance will have to suffice. Throughout the Amazon, from west to east, the forest is accompanied by forest vegetation; only in the most northeast region, from Monte Alegre to Macapa,