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however, we cannot find support for this conjecture under geognostic conditions, nor in the earliest remnants of American settlement, but it is difficult to repel the idea that the aqueous element was very strongly operative here, and this is to a large extent: in particular, the Amazon basin, which is the subject of our considerations. The covering of water, to which the genesis of the present orogenic formation must be attributed, was evidently not only of the colossal extension (that is, from the eastern slopes of the Andes to the great lower main basin and the partial basins, to the limit of the regions) of the tributaries, but must have been preceded by an extremely deep and impetuous water movement towards the Amazon River, due to which precisely all the other orogenic formations were completely destroyed, all swept into the ocean, and the deep depressions, which today are filled with the formation of stone grains and keuprico grains. All this bears witness to the extraordinary thickness of the Neptune formation, among which nowhere is the oldest stone, and, in addition, the unique deepening of many regions, particularly in the vicinity of the Tajipuru Canal and the southwestern part of Marajo Island, where rigorous measurements are likely to find points lying at or just below sea level, as well as finally the sheer lack of breach and rolled rock fragments are particular indications of older neighboring formations. Neither the trachitic or primitive rocks of the Andes or Parime Mountains occur disaggregated on the surface of the current orogenic formation of the lower Amazon basin.

Had the oldest stone, perhaps in this layer of tertiary formation, sunk, or been carried to the ocean? Or, moreover, had some part of the basin itself, prior to tertiary formation, not once been a monstrous sea bay rather than land? Those large round granitic masses, whose problematic occurrence in Upper Bavaria and the far north of Germany were believed among other things, as being caused by glaciers, and were also observed in neighboring Orinoco (we saw them in a very remote region in the valley of the Paraiba River);

Round, granitic mass

but in the Amazon Basin nothing similar is known. On the other hand, it must also be admitted that that tertiary formation, once thrown out of the water layer, suffered no further catastrophe from subsequent flooding; if this had happened then secondary constitutions and deposit formations, organic remains, etc. would appear, of which no trace has been found so far.

Evidently, the banks of plastic clay, the deposits of a friable grain, colored with limestone alloy, or a conglomerate crushed together with fragments of all these stones and jasper


are witness to this last time and, therefore, to the most recent alleviations,; the deposits of colored clay, kaolin, plaster, gravelly firm limestone, which alternate with the conglomerate of grains and reddish grains, belong immediately to the tertiary age itself, for the waters above the collapsed formation had already found their way out to sea.

This water has nowhere left a deposit of cooking salt; even its absence from the cavernous limestone formation that in Paraguay occurs along with the inexhaustible supply of salt on the soil surface makes it probable that the water itself was no longer salty (1). Nor is there any trace of freshwater crustaceans in this great basin, perhaps because the impetuosity of the watercourse was too strong to permit establishment of these animals; In Europe, at least in places like this subjected to a violent current, the life of this breed of immovable animals cannot be favored, while they appear in the depths of the valley in the protected basins around. Subsequent coverings across the current ocean may have occurred here and abound.

As a testimony to this, we wanted to examine the banks of sea shells and corals (berbigoes, in tupi, sernambis) that appear deep in the valley, particularly



(1) Are the salt plains, extending to the north and not Jauru and Paragui, still all currently by the ocean itself? They appear to be situated deep within the terra firma, though not far above sea level, at the mouth of Tocantins.