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The Maues, on the contrary, black the traces of the tattoo with the deposit of the smoke, obtained from the genipap.

On the sixth day, I arrived at Vila de Moura (1), currently the most populous town on the Rio Negro,

among whose inhabitants are many descendants of the Cariais, Bares and Manaus tribe. Because of the great mortality that has been taking place all over the river this year, the inhabitants have been advised to proceed without delay to leave the area.

A little below the Vila de Moura, another formation appears, that is, a simple

granite (granitic gneisse). Convex islands and blocks of it appear here and there. But here are far fewer islands in the river.

On the stone are born many rows of pineapples and other species of bromeliads,

Bromelia pinguin

as well as clusias and other plants with thick leaves.

Clusia guttiferae

Moura is situated in an almost flat, half circle. Like all villages, it has two judges (one for the whites and one for the Indians), a vicar and a military commander. In a short day's journey upstream, there is the "place of Carvoeiro," also the southern bank of the river, which here has a narrow bed of half a league, on the opposite side, almost opposite the village, there are the three mouths of Rio Branco.

Rio Branco meets Rio Negro

Carvoeiro (2) is inhabited by some families of the tribes of Manaus, Cariais and Coretus. Above Carvoeiro, the granite ceases; we can see the banks formed of thin tabatinga;

Tabatinga, red clay

and the islands again become numerous.

From here, I still had a three-day trip to Barcelos (3), where I arrived on February 21, after spending the little time at the "place of Poiares" in the evening.

That village, once a flourishing port of the Rio Negro province, now has only ruins of the old offices of the State, and in all, no more than a few hundred inhabitants, who have been devastated by the continuous intermittent fevers.

Village of Barcelos

The commander offered me a house; but he added that he had had the misfortune to lose his wife, a victim of the endemic disease, so that of course I could not accept the discouraging invitation. I myself felt, already on the second day of stay there, such a lassitude of the head and limbs and such a great


(1) Moura had before been named the Santa Rita de Cassia de Itarendaua. According to Araujo and Amazonas (pp. 167-168), it was originally a village of Cariais Indians, managed by the Carmelite nuns, on the left bank of the Rio Uariras, “ from where they moved to the present situation, taking from the nature of their terrain the name of Quarry. " We must say that, indeed, Itarendaua is the word with which, in the Amazonian tupi, the quarry is designated. (Rev. Note, Inst. Hist. And Geogr. Bras.).

 (2) This is the old parish of Santo Alberto de Aracari. The eastern bank of the Caburi was founded (between Araujo and Amazonas, see page 61), thanks to Sergeant Guilherme Valente, who subjected the forest people there (Manaus, Paravianas, and Tiaranacuacenas). Guilherme received in marriage the daughter of one of the chiefs. He was the first Governor of Sao Jose do Rio Negro, Joaquim de Melo and Povoas, to which he gave the name of Carvoeiro. (Rev. Note, Inst. Hist. And Geog. Bras.).

(3) Barcelos was originally the village of Manaus, which had the name of Mariua. It was the first seat of the captaincy of Sao Jose do Rio Negro, created in 1757. There was born Bento de Figueiredo Tenreiro Aranha (1769-1811). (Rev. Note, Inst. Hist. And Geogr. Bras.).