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shore the mouth the Uarivau basin (Guariai, Guariboca), which currently leads the yellow waters of Solimoes to the dark of the Rio Negro, is 30 to 40 feet wide.

From the Uarivau basin I reached, in three days, the "place" of Airao, halfway between Barra and Barcelos. In the vicinity of this place, the same ferruginous stonework as a breach appeared on the banks, which sometimes rise, especially on the southern side, 50 feet high,, and in the middle of that, the same reddish stoneware, which we have observed everywhere here. This stoneware appears here and there, on the broken peaks, and on benches, on the canals, or on the river itself.


Above Airao, a leptinite predominates, which the inhabitants use to sharpen knives. In addition to this, they say that there is also a black stone, very heavy and hard, which, however, I did not see since it was covered by the river. In the northern shore, the sandstone does not exist below the mouth of the Anavilhana, where this leptinite rock rises, forming the hills called Serra de Araraquara;

Serra de Araraquara

further on, the waters predominate; and the land at the mouths of the Anasvilhana, is cut by so many streams, channels and lakes, that on the north side one navigates upstream, during two days of travel, between islands. Alas, farther on, to the north-west of Airao, the river sometimes is, with its numerous islands, three to four leagues wide. Airao (1), whose inhabitants were mainly of the Aroaqui nation, which in part still lives free on the northern bank of the river, counts only about 30 huts. As in times past, the village suffered, recently, a raid, which devastated it, of wild Indians of that tribe.

I found the huts of this place largely closed, and continued on the same day to the mouth of the Jau. Amazingly, the contrast is immediate with the plants of the Amazon. The plants on the sandy banks look very different from those of the latter river.

A mimosa, with tufts of blossoming flowers,

a melasatomacea with lavender flowers

and the piquiarana (Caryocar glabrum), with which the fish can be numbed, predominate in those shore.

Currently, the trees are almost all flowering or with fruits.

Erythroxylon Coca

Also the ipadu shrub (Erythroxylon Coca) grows here as well as another one of the red ink, the caa-piranga ("red leaf", Bignonia chica, or macucu (Ilex macucu),

Bignonia chica

Ilex macucu

whose crushed fruits give the black ink, used to enamel the gourds , and the genipapist (Genipa americano).

Genipa americano

And this is the tree, with whose juice the Passes, Juris and others use for the tatoo.

(I) Airao, according to D. Frederico Costa ("Pastoral Letter", page 127), was formerly called Santo Elias de Jau,

Taruma and Manaus

in which the primitive village of Taruma was founded in 1669 by Pedro da Costa Favela and mercenary F. Teodosio,

with Taruma and the Aruaquais Indians, on the left bank of the Rio Negro, in the immediate vicinity of Aiurim. (Rev. Note, Inst. Hist. And Geogr, Bras.).