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more civilized people. Most of them spoke the general language, endeavored to relieve the sick, and enjoyed the sour limes which had been planted here during the Spanish occupation before the borders were determined. Many Juris still remembered that expedition and asked us to show our arms to their wives, for they had never seen pure whites (caryba sobaigoara) (1); but they were very surprised that we did not use hair nets like the Spaniards. At the mouth of the Miriti-parana canal, which we reached the following afternoon, the Juris chief warned me of the signal of raised huts on the bank which showed that chief Gregorio had already returned from that river and was waiting for us in the great Cupati Waterfall;

In many circumstances, the Indians often show, by these signs (sangaba) (2), that they are alive; but if the signs remain in the place, the objects are often considered, by those who come later, with superstitious dread, like works of witchcraft. When we reached the waterfall, we came upon an interesting spectacle. With Gregory, several groups of related Indians had descended on the Meriti River, camped on a bank of sand,

shielding themselves with palm leaves, stuck in the ground. Everyone came here hurriedly, to offer us in exchange their various weapons, ornaments of feathers and live animals.

Here I obtained, among other things, a bamboo tube full of ipadu, and a delicately carved spoon of the bone of the thigh of an jaguar, with which the chief distributes the heady powder to his warriors, when these go to combat.

Jacchus auritus

Jacchus penicillatus

Among the animals, there were some tamarins (Jacchus) of the small kind that are easily domesticated, and they played freely in the canoe. A very small species of anteater (Myrmecophaga),

which was brought to me alive, I tried to keep alive. The low water level of the river allowed us, the next morning, to pass through

the top of the Cupati Waterfall, without unloading. The canoes descended happily down a boulder of rocks of the southern bank. On the north side of the river, a rocky islet now appeared, against which the waters rushed wildly;

our upstream passage was not even visible, and therefore the river level had dropped, at least, 12 feet.

Captain Zani ?

Captain Zani, whose state of health improved, took care of the passage of the boat through the lower waterfall, and I chose, however, guided by the chief of the Domingos, from Manacaru, to go forward, with some men on the northern bank, in order to

Lower falls of the Cupati


(1) Caryba-sabaigoara, in the original. but in the Amazonian tupi of now, it is said Caryua, "he said, as can be seen in Stradelli (" Vocabulary ", pages 403 and 649). The expression means "white German." (Rev. Note, Inst. Hist. And Geogr. Bras.).

(2) Sangaba passed the sangaua in the present nheengatu of the Amazon. Stradelli (loc. Cit., Pp. 370 and 639) also sets out the Angaua and Rangaua forms, giving these and that the meanings of image, figure, portrait, aspect. "(Rev. Note, Inst. Hist. e Geogr. Bras.).