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This very costly company is not, however, yet established. Undoubtedly, it must also be considered, that a hostile expedition against the city, by the sea side, is very difficult, for reasons of the dangers that the river offers to sail, because it is full of sand banks. The sand and the waterways, and the navigable canals, which mostly pass along the eastern shore, reduce their usual depth of eight or six yards, sometimes to three and a half or three yards.

For example, Olaria is a half hour from the city and from the castle, where you can only anchor near the bank, at 3 or 4 yards. On the ground side, the attack could be accomplished with greater effort and sacrifice, because the terrain, extremely unequal, and traversed by deep pits and marshes, or covered with obstacles and virgin forests, and would offer great means to the defender, knowledgeable of the obstacles. However, among all the coastal cities of Brazil, Belem is the one that is more exposed to the danger of surprise attacks. It was then that the garrison of the whole province, after victories in Macapa, Cameta, etc. gathered in the capital, where, thanks to the relentless efforts of the governor, they were disciplined and strengthened by continuing arms exercises. The garrison consisted of three regiments of infantry, which, assembled, were 3,000 men (but only consisted of half), a squadron of cavalry and a battalion of artillery of 300 men.

Imperial army 1817

D. Francisco de Sousa Coutinho (1) had formed with Indians a body of light infantry. However, this body was soon dissolved, and is currently a large part of regular infantry. Although these troops are much lower in number and military appearance than the European troops, the Brazilians would certainly overcome the Europeans, however, in mobility and endurance. A sack of manioc flour, which the trooper carries with him assures him subsistence for eight days, and, by wandering day and night in the dense virgin forests and impenetrable marsh, he would tire the opposition and guerrilla warfare would win.

It is boasted that Belem is the first above all other cities in Brazil regarding the number of articles of export which in fact number not less than 14. They are sugar, Cachaca, Melado, coffee, chocolate, vanilla, balsam, ropes, tar, Copal, Tatajuba (Guriuba) (2),


(I) D. Francisco de Sousa Coutinho, conde de Linhares, Governor with the captaincy of Grao-Para cl. from 1790 to and be replaced by the count of Arcos, 1803. (Nola da Rev., 111st. History. and Geogr. Bras. ) .

(2) Tatajuba (Tatauba, Tataiba, Tatai-i) c a Mo RNs tinctoria, Lfactura LTinctoria or Brousse ' Netia tinctoria that, for reasons of its colouring. Of a very vivid yellow (TATA • Iuba or Tata-y ba, it means "Pau-fire ", "fire wood "), was once exported to the Old World, before the discovery of the Aniline.. This Urticicea also called "Moreira " (Por "Amoreira ") em Sergipe, "thorn-white " and the Capinheiro Bravo in Pernambuco. (Rev. Note, Inst. Hist. and Geogr. Bras.).