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reached the shore on the south side. During these endeavors, it rained incessantly; but luckily we were very pleased to have taken the boat, on that day, to an island of sand, above the waterfall, in order to spend the night there. Above this first fall, several streams are launched in the river, along which the sedimentary rock emerges in thin layers, which can be used as a grinding stone (in Tupi, Ita-ky), and the Indians exported some from here to Belem do Para.

The biggest fall, the waterfall of Cupati (in Tupi, Ytu), is 1 hour west of the first, above which the river is further narrowed, between higher shores. It was formed, like the other shore, by cross stone benches, where the river in the floods can’t be completely contained, producing a fall of the waters that covered the entire width of the river. In this case, the waters should cover the reefs more than 30 fathoms in width and more than three bracas in height; But we actually found many whirlwinds and rapids among the gigantic cliffs, without noticing an effect on the water level. Therefore, the boats could be pulled forward, in the same way as in the smaller waterfall; It was only necessary to unload them completely, and the whole load had to be transported on the men's backs until far above the shore, passed over stacked boulders, to a tip of sand that sits on the other side of the cataract, a punishing and dangerous task, because they are slippery and unequal. Giving the necessary orders, I joined my agreeable companion, Mr. Zani, at the conclusion of the tiring work. I went off with Joao Bernardo, who has often traveled this area, for a tour of the mountain of Cupati, in whose streams we found beautiful stones, as promised,

Rock crystal


with some rock crystals and topazes. I therefore decided to draw some conclusions on the formation of this mountain,

White quartz

whose layers of a very hard, white quartz stone, aside from the legend of gold mines in the area, reminded us of an identical form of gold-producing ore in Minas Gerais. We sailed downstream of the river, in the canoes, that we had left under the waterfall, and we reached, already at dusk, a hilly place on the mountain, where a considerable creek is precipitating from the mountains, rumbling and roaring. We investigated thoroughly for holes of the sandstone, but without success; We only found impure rock crystals, and no more geological curiosities appeared. It had darkened completely; Again we walked on the southern side of the river, from which we heard the roar of the fall, to the place where we had left our busy people. We arrived drenched in the rain, trembling with cold and hungry. To our astonishment we found everything in silence, without any sign of the crews’ presence.

They had withdrawn to a sand bank above the cataract in order to camp there. After a series of