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The Serra de Cupati extends perhaps by a league, from south to north, and the

current of the river, which, coming from the west-northwest, runs into it, and making a great curve, runs into the Apaporis, at its northern end.

Its configuration, both in length and by the surrounding vegetation, differs slightly, when viewed from afar, from the raised lands of Amazonas. In the eastern part above the vertice of the green of the forest, stands a white block of rock, which, brightly illuminated by the sun, as I saw it on the way past, reflects a dazzling light. When we got closer, we noticed the faster movement of the waters, and the strong roar indicated to us the proximity of the first fall, the smallest, which is called Cachoeirinha de Cupati; After that, we spotted the cataract itself.

Cachoeirinha de Cupati

Cupati waterfall

The riverbed is narrow here with a width of about 120 bracas, and the waters precipitate explosively from above a cliff, which crosses them across the width of the cliff. Now, while the river was low in water, the cliffs on both sides of the river were eight to 10 feet above the water level, and others were discovered between small falls, swirls and rapids, where the river opened its passage downwards. The cliffs were rounded, shaped by the violence of the waters, which join in the hills above and still appear far from the bottom of the river. The stone and hard rock, is stratified, of very fine granulation. The surface of the rock bathed by the waters, internally white, was strangely polished and browned, so that, under certain light, it was as reflective as mirror. The oxidation seemed to penetrate some lines within the stone; However, this altered part did not present the specific composition (a carbon alloy with iron?), which I later observed in the Upper river basin. Above this waterfall, the river curves to the northwest, surrounding the mountain,

Serra Cupati

and appears fringed with jungles, and in the visible openings, wherever they appear, looks like a lake. The dark color of the mountain, overcast with clouds laden with rain, the mysterious tranquility of the forest, the colossal heap of rocks, one piled over the other, and the roaring of the waterfall, gave to this landscape an unspeakable melancholy, whose impression still always lives in my spirit. The Indians themselves, many of whom had never seen a mountain or cataract, seemed impressed with that formidable scenario. They looked amazed, sometimes to the mountain, sometimes to the whirlwind of the frightening waters.

The boat was secured with long stems and vines of the Timbotitica, and then the crew sought to pull it forward, in a fissure between the cliffs above the swirls and rapids, while others kept it on course, by means of poles. On the northern shore, the current was too violent; So,later we

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