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the position of the head on the trunk, at a more oblique angle than in the Europeans, as well as in the blacks; the hair is rather curly at the end, but almost smooth. Another Mestico, whose father was Indian and the mother mulatto, had all the dimensions broader than those described above.

After some time, we passed before the mouths of the dark Lake of Cupaca and the small Rivers Iauato and Bare, and the channels, formed by islands, of Comatia and Maicoapani, arriving at the Japura River.

This river, which is somewhat clearer than Solimoes, hitherto is still very little known, and is not navigated deep into the lands. At its mouth, it has almost a quarter league wide. It is inhabited by the Catauixis Indians, Catuquinas, Caripunas, Canamares, etc.,

Catuquinas today


and it is incredible there the abundance of cocoa and salsaparilla.


Coca trees, Theobroma cacau

The sweet juice in the cocoa almond flavor of a kind of wine is very refreshing.


A singular legend refers to short-tailed men, Coata Tapuias, who are said to live in the Jupura region. Although this legend is generally known along the Solimoes, I could not, however, gather safe information about it. More exact must be another legend, that of the existence of an old tribe, that of the Cauanas, whose individuals are only three to four palms high; we saw in Barra a Jurua Indian who, though already twenty-four years old, was only three feet and four inches tall. Is this small stature inherited ? or should it be attributed to a coincidence, such as that of the albino Indian, whom we observed in Barra, and the second case, which I saw in Taruma - I cannot decide.

Etching #25 Japura river in dry season

We crossed the mouth of the Japura and reached, even in the same afternoon, the terrible Castelana Barrier. How great my fright was, as we sailed here along the immense ravine of fifty or sixty feet high, undermined by the current and already softened by the rains, which supported a high forest aloft, or which with other landslides, threatened canoes of shipwreck like the one that had happened to the Spanish boat, which broke and submerged, giving the place its name ! To add to the danger, it was not possible to pass as quickly as I wished through this place, for the Indians could not conquer the current, needing to grasp the fallen trees: thus we were rowing the canoes too slowly forward. These impetuous streams, the overlapping ravines, ready to crash, and the gigantic trees tumbling into the river, have already wrecked many canoes in the Solimoes, and constitute the greatest of all dangers. To these were added the physical ailments,