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buy a lot of the corduroy cloth made of hemp from the Brazilians. There are so many requests that the government could sell about 10,000 annually; but, mindful of the low labor employed in manufacturing, it makes the annual profit, at most, of 2,000 or 3,000. Until today, this article is not given to the tenant farmers, although it is handled as part of the government, and the delivery is made directly by Arsenal da Barra to the city of Belem do Para. Gama Lobo also created several hemp factories there, but almost all of them are already in decline. The hemp processed there is the worst I have seen.

Barra do Rio Negro, with the population growth, will become a very important place for all trade with the outback of Brazil. Its position in the healthy and pleasant altitude, dominating the entire Rio Negro, in the vicinity of the Amazon and not far from the mouth of Madeira, could not have been more fortunately chosen.

Upper Amazon

The Rio Negro and its two main tributaries, the Uapes and the Branco, are actually, in fact, very sparsely populated and cultivated; once these fertile lands are ennobled by industry and civilization, with their natural way of trading, the Barra, flourishing as a rich and powerful commercial city, will be the key to the western part of the country. Even the upper reaches of the Orinoco, separated from the ocean, to the north by the falls, will communicate with Europe on this side, whose navigation from the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean over the Amazon, like a sea-arm, may be extended to here. In addition, however far away that brilliant epoch may be, the importance of Barra do Rio Negro will be fully appreciated by the government. The fort shall be preserved, and little by little the city shall increase; here is also the headquarters of the military detachments of the province of Rio Negro, consisting of about 150 men, half of whom belong to the line and half of the militias. The latter are already organized, and, at the time, they were to form eight companies, each of 80 men; now only four were fully equipped and exercised. According to news given to us by letter from our friend Zani, he was later commissioned by the emperor to occupy himself with the organization of two regiments throughout the province. The troops quartered here have a very extensive and varied range of action. In the village, they are employed in the policing and surveillance of public buildings. Outside, they serve the three border posts: Tabatinga, in Solimoes;


Sao Jose dos Marabitanas

Fort of Sao Joaquim on Rio Branco

Sao Jose dos Marabitanas, in the Rio Negro; and Sao Joaquim, in Rio Branco. They patrol against hostile Indians or, on the islands of tortoises, accompany travelers to distant rivers, to harvest natural products there, and go down river with organized expeditions to bring free Indians to the villages.