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traveler from their high, dense swarm. If a large number of bites have affected any part of the body, which are burning and burning, just a warm bath will relieve it somewhat. If the bites are too deep, they produce external tumors, which, with the continued itching and irritation of the skin, can become severe; They account to us the fatal cases in Indians, who were victims of the Piera, which they call the rash. No traveler can, in the upper Amazon, escape this plague, and, for this reason, we almost always stayed in the houses of the colonists. Here a special servant, at the disposition of the owner, when it is time to wash the feet, sticks the blisters with a fine needle. This gives the hands the aspect of being covered by bloody points. Also in the southern provinces, the good services of a slave is used to remove pests. Moreover, the Pium flies by day; his scourge is exercised in the clarity of the sun, and at night he collects the blood. Another insect, which appears only at dusk, is the Muruim, a species of mosquito, which is three times smaller than the Carapana; With its penetrating prick, it is no less malicious than the Carapana.



Its traits are different than those of the Carapana, by the fact of tormenting in silence, without the atrocious zeal of the Carapana, and spending only in a small space of time around the traveler, it returns to the bush as night falls, yielding its place to the nighttime enemies of sleep. One must protect oneself from Muruims and Carapanas with thick silk clothing; As for the Pium, this only stings exposed skin. These three bloodthirsty insects attack regularly; And also in the rest of Amazon River we find them all over.

von Humboldt and Bonpland, explorers

Mr. von Humboldt cites them as common in the missions of the Alto Orinoco. They take turns attacking and "stand guard for each other". We did not note the absolute periodicity of the appearance of these insects, as that distinguished traveler did.

We assume that, in general, this plague of malignant insects, throughout the Amazon, appears in small clusters as in the upper Orinoco and the Santa Madalena River. I am sorry I cannot make a systematic determination of all the species that pursued us in the course of the journey; However, there is a comparison between the mosquitoes observed by us and by Mr. Von Humboldt, which is that the Pium is the same mosquito of the Orinoco, and that the two species, Muruim (properly meru-I, "small mosquito ") and Carapana, correspond to the Tempraneros and Zacundas. These last species of Culicides do not seem to correspond, however, to the species cited by Mr. Von Humboldt, and probably were the scientifically described.

The thorax of the Carapana of the Amazon (Culex Amazonicus) has greyish-green legs; The last pair of legs, which extend horizontally during the blood sucking, have some alternating, white and black hairs.