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which appears in the interstitials of limestone, and above all on the ground, in holes, or under ridges, a few inches to a foot in thickness, and in shapeless, pierced pieces, which bear much resemblance to the land of the big anthills. In color and more physical aspects, this earth is exactly the same as the outside of the cave, only thinner and more impregnated with flood water. Both these particularities, as well as the fact that the cave walls are glossy in the curves of the gallery, and at different times there are efflorescences of marl,


it seems likely that in the past the waters erupted violently in the cave, perhaps also bringing the bones of primitive animals, who were buried in these caves. According to this report, the stairway just mentioned shows that the cave must have once contained an underground waterfall. After searching the earth for bones for hours, we went through some galleries, in which we found nothing but a few cold water reservoirs in the rock. All the cave sites, which had a good percentage of saltpeter, were much warmer than the bare parts; indicated the temperature of 19 ° R. whereas the main gallery only had 17 ° ½ ° R. Outside the cave at the same time, between one and two hours, the thermometer had 21 1/2 ° R. The cave must extend a good hour further from N. to S. on the mountain, and no one has yet reached its end, because the lights go out before a subterranean stream approaches. When we left this extraordinary cave, it was cloudy night, and we found the guides, busy feeding a fire they had lit the entrance. The high flames, reflected in the stone, threw off their wavering light,

Dicotyles torquatus

through the bare trunks of the woods, setting off innumerable frightened caititus (Dicotyles torquatus, Cuv.), and as the smoke drifted from the cracks in the rocks, crowds of bats flocking distressed around us. This night show, a new experience for us, provided us with the opportunity to know some species of these fantastic animals. We killed three different species of bats

(Molossus obscurus, Geoffr., M. nasutus and Preboscidea saxatilis, Spix), which nested here in common. These species are extremely abundant throughout the interior of Minas Gerais, but especially in the Sao Francisco River, where many crevices and burrows in the uncultivated limestone mountains offer them good shelters; bats sometimes attack cattle at night in so many flocks that owners are forced to leave their farms, and retire to quieter regions. It is therefore not uncommon to campaign against these peace-disturbing vampires. So usually the farmers, on clear days,