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important. Due to the large number of commanders of that Order, to which almost all swindlers belong, the requests and the price of this stone are still considerable.


Chrysoberyls, in the country called chrysolites, are extremely abundant, but it is rare to find large stones, pure burgundy or greenish yellow, and without opalescence.

Green aquamarine

The green aquamarines are, without discussion, the most beautiful stones that appear in these areas. They are the same as the East Indies, both in color, which is generally the most beautiful sea green, as well as in the scintillation and reflection of colors, when they are properly cut. The largest of these stones, found to date, weighs 16 pounds and is in Rio de Janeiro, stored in the Treasury. We were fortunate to receive a sample of this large-sized and beautiful color, which is kept in Munich in the gem room. The yellow, honey-colored stones that appear mainly among the grenades, and called by the people of Jacintas, spinels. Under the name of aquamarines, they are also call beryls here; however they are very chipped and inferior to the Siberian beryl. When they do not stand out for size, color or clarity, they are worth little.

Green tourmaline

The same is true, and to a greater extent, of green tourmalines, which in the country are mistakenly called emeralds. They appear sometimes in prisms, very clear, pure, without perfect crystallization, sometimes in larger crystals, of the minimum finger size, and in this case, in general, with the opaque surface and rounded edges. The first ones are mainly in Gramiaes, a farm in the Rio Pardo countryside, thirty leagues north of Fanado, in the open; the latter are in Ribeirao da Folha, ten leguas east of Chapada. These stones are so chipped that they are seldom cut, and for this reason they seldom make jewels of them.

The table of Chapada's hospitable priest offered a small kind of hot chili pepper, which, in addition to the little sour lemon, is the usual seasoning, and is appetizing in white clay jars. But it produced a bad effect, although the berries were not extremely spicy; we experienced headache, dizziness, twinkling of eyesight and all symptoms of acute infection and narcotization; but they soon disappeared with vinegar fumigations and some spoons of it taken internally. Never before, nor after, during the journey, when we used this spice of preference, had we experienced such effects. It is probable, therefore, that the so-called capsicin, which gives the hot chili its strong heat, can develop normally in the fruit, while in other occasions, as in the latter, the narcotizing alkaloid, corresponding to the bases producing of acid in other Solaneas,