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cylinders, rolling against each other, and the bundle is wrapped in rawhide sacks by means of a very simple press. The cargo of an animal (mule) usually consists of eight arrobas, and is paid to Rio de Janeiro 14 $ 000 and to Bahia, relatively less.

Shipments to both of these ports are made by twelve troops, each of 10 to 14 mules, who are traveling all year round. However, the largest amount of this article goes to Rio de Janeiro, except for the relatively much smaller exports from the other parts of Minas province and its surroundings, and is supplied almost exclusively by Minas Novas. For Bahia, cotton is not only carried by land, and by the Conquista road, but mainly by the aforementioned Belmonte or Rio Grande ports.

Minas Gerais to Bahia

The Pernambuco and Minas Novas cotton, the most appreciated in Brazil, is always sold at sea ports at 1 $ 000 or 2 $ 000 more expensive than the other lands of Minas or Rio de Janeiro, Porto Segura, etc. .

In the years 1819 and 1820, when orders were most urgent, an arroba of cotton cost, in Rio and Bahia, 7 $ 000 to 7 $ 300. With these prices, the cotton traders profit greatly in the termo of Minas Novas, and, therefore, return home with large amounts cash. Despite this, in the termo there is no abundance of money; They told us that the sum of currency there is no more than 80,000 Cruzados. With this poverty of the country in general, foreign traders, who appear, gain great advantage, which is why, from time to time, foreign agents, French and English, will buy there for their firms, established in Rio and Bahia, huge amounts of cotton, and this speculation is considered one of the safest that European or Brazilian commercial houses can undertake in the interior of Brazil.

In addition to cotton, which is the most important production in the country, there are also transported from the western regions of the Caribbean, hides, some salted meat, oxen and horses, to Rio de Janeiro, and mainly to Bahia.

Rio de Janeiro to Minas Gerais

Horses get high prices in this latter city, especially the fat and strong ones that are sold at two hundred and three hundred talers, since there are no horses received from the troops of mules coming from the south every year, nor can they be bred in the wild, nearby regions.

Land of Diamonds and gemstones

Finally, the precious stones, which appear in the Minas Gerais termo, are as follows: white and blue topazes (raindrops, topazes and sapphires); grenades, spinach (jacinta), chrysoberyls (chrysolites and aquamarines), rhinestones, amethysts, red quartz (rubies) and green tourmalines (emeralds), the trading of which is of some importance. These stones are shipped mostly


White topaz

Sapphire, blue topaz





Red quartz, rubies

Green tourmaline, emerald