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of volunteers on horseback. Ordinances are not organized independently, since the so-called auxiliary or ordinance bodies were raised to militias.

Sao Luis enjoys for its situation near the equator (2 °, 29 '), a truly equatorial climate. The heat here would be almost unbearable if it were not softened by the constant alternation of the wind of the sea and the wind of the earth. According to Colonel Antonio Pereira Lago's observations, the city's average annual temperature is = 21 °, 12 ° R. North winds prevail here for much of the year, and greatly compete to mitigate the heat. The time of the high waters begins later on the island than in the interior of the province, that is, in the month of January; It lasts until May or June, usually causing continuous damage, and the rains are torrential, accompanied by heavy thunderstorms. Although so close to the equator, it is a very healthy the city, situated among virgin forests, whose vegetation, on only high ground about 250 feet above the ocean, is always moist and rich; even the whole island, except for a few stretches of coastline, near the marshy mangroves, deserves a reputation for being healthy, particularly in the dry months. There is no single endemic disease here; and except for the mumps, no epidemics are known. Inflammatory diseases are very rare; The most common occur hydrops, dysenterias and cholera-morbo, the latter, however, only sporadic.

The trade of Maranhao took an amazing increase since the growing of cotton; and also the three main articles, which are exported from here,


Leather goods

cotton, rice and leather, give exportation a great preponderance over the importation. According to official data, the average export reached, in the years 1815 to 1820, the amount of 3,080: 604 $ 298; the importation is 2,841: 179 $ 613. See the tables from official sources at the end of the chapter. (Note I). It is understood from them that the most considerable income of the state comes from taxes on cotton.

The cotton farms were formerly leased, as well as that of other crop products to rich contractors, but over time, the Cotton Inspection Bureau was set up by the government, which, weekly, according to the average price of a six-day period, determines the price of cotton brought to the city, and from that price the tax is removed. In addition, on each arroba shipped, there is also an export tax of 600 reis. Of every 10 arrobas sold by the grower, he receives, as compensation, 1 $ 280 of the freight. However, it is not the farmers who pay this tax to the Inspection Board; The payment is made immediately by the dealers, who receive the goods from the producer. To some of the richest and considered