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especially used oxen brains, and various species of fine soap. A few decades will be enough to make the northern provinces of Brazil independent of the importation of these leather articles from Europe and North America.

Leather industry

On the shores of Marajao island we found the fennel very abundant (Batis maritima, L.); however, it is not as employed by the inhabitants as it is by the Antilles settlers, who, as it is known, prepare very tasty pickles with vinegar.

Batis maritima

The road from Fazenda do Arraial, three leagues beyond, in the northwest direction, led us through a low and humid terrain. Strangely, the groves were so closed, by the low thorny palm that is so rare on the plantations.

At Fazenda da Bacanga, we took a small canoe and paddled down the Bacanga River below, made very shallow by the ebb. This shallow river stretches after many turns into ever larger coves, and is eventually lost to a vast plain in the ocean.

Rio Bacanga

The city rises on the northeastern shore of the harbor over low and very uneven terrain and, from this side, looked really grand. We disembarked at the port and soon went through the streets to get to know the city.

Sao Luis, old city

A good genius inspired us to seek that same afternoon for the Consul of Great Britain, to whom we brought letters of recommendation. What was not our happiness when he came to meet us, in the person of Robert Hesketh, a man who, for the love of any scientific initiative and incited by the noblest and lofty spirit, felt obliged to welcome us, the poor sick travelers, and, with the finest hospitality, give us all the best treatment. To his truly fraternal care we owe the revival of life and health; and if, also expressing my feelings of gratitude, I risk hurting his modesty, the well-formed reader, however, will approve of my course.


(I) The production of cotton from the province of Maranhao was described by Gaioso, as follows: - On a good stretch of land, 50 slaves produce - in addition to rice and cassava flour, enough to feed them in order to have farm equipment in good condition, and cover costs, - 2,000 arrobas of cotton, or 600 arrobas of cotton lint, already removed from the hull.

Cotton field

The income of a black man's daily chores should not be calculated below 200 reis. Assuming that he produces 80 reis daily in tasks other than the continued cultivation of cotton, and that, except on Sundays, there are only 300 days of service, is considered in the following budget: