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raids on neighboring colonies, declared enemies of the state and outlaws; when captured, they became slaves; and, as in Minas against the Botocudos,

Provinces of Bahia, Pernambuco, Piaui, Ceara, Maranhao

Province of Goias

innumerable entries were made in Goias, Piaui and Maranhao against enemy Indians, inhabitants of the banks of the Tocantins and Mearim Rivers, forest people that are commonly designated with the general name of Botocudos, and which were also enslaved.

But although a Portuguese writer (Azeredo Coutinho, "Essay on Portuguese Trade", pages 61 and 67) (1) stated that by the year 1758 hordes of Botocudos were driven from Minas Gerais

by the Coroados to the borders of Maranhao. According to some reports, it is certain, however, that the entrances to the northern provinces referred not only to these primitive Botocudos (the ancient Amoores), but to many other numerous

War dance

warrior tribes, which in part, like the Botocudos, used to pierce the lower lip and the ears. Of the Pimenteiras thus captured, we saw several in Oeiras. They were among the most robust and accomplished among the Indians who had hitherto appeared to us, and had in the features of their physiognomy, as well as in the language very rich in sounds, palatines, a certain strength and firmness, which in vain we sought in other Indians in Sao Goncalo. The Indians found here belonged to the tribes of the Gogues (guegues) and


Acroas (acroazes, amazons). They were accessible to us through their chief Marcellin, a very old but still perfectly vigorous man who was not of pure Indian origin, seeming to have a mixture of Ethiopian blood, and had assisted Joao do Rego against these Indians.

Province of Goias with Tocatins river

The Gogues inhabited and still inhabit between the southernmost part of the Parnaiba River, the Sono River and the Tocatins River. Already in the year 1765, 400 of them were gathered in a village, Sao Joao de Sende, nine leagues north of Oeiras. The northernmost Acroas of the Indian precedents live, between Rio das Balsas, Parnaiba and Tocantins. The Acroas-accus, and the Acroas-mirim, that is, the great and the small, are divided into two hordes; They speak, however, the same language, which differs little from that of the Gogues. The young Acroas, so far, have not yet been subdued. The Indians of these two tribes are less brave and warlike than their northernmost neighbors, the Timbiras (imbiras, embiras),

Province of Maranhao

a tribe spread throughout the Maranhão wilderness. According to information from old Marcellin, these indigenous tribes are used as weapons, with bow and arrow, which they sometimes poison. They feed on hunting and fishing and are allowed agriculture. To sail in Tocantins, they do not use canoes,

(I) D. Jose Joaquim da Cunha de Azeredo Coutinho was born in Campos in I743 and died in Lisbon in 1821. In addition to other works, two of which are on the African slave trade, he left an interesting "Memory on Sugar Price" "(I791) in the" Economic Essay on Trade in Portugal and its Colonies "(1794). (Rev. Note, Inst. Hist. and Geogr. Bras.).