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dealers and held in official warehouses before being shipped, thereby causing their deterioration; Also the best qualities are approved, and the loose leaf trade is directly exploited by the government, which refers them to Goa and Macao. - Paraiba province, located to the north of Pernambuco, has the greatest similarity of climate with this, as well as in crops and productions. The commerce of the city of Paraiba is considerable; however, small boats can only travel the Paraiba upstream, three leagues away from the capital. Large draft ships anchor between the two fortresses defending the mouth, at a depth of six to seven feet, or off the bar, with six to seven bottom arms.

Bahia, Pernambuco, Piaui, Cearam Maranhao

Also the two northern provinces, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceara, are identical in their physical condition, to that of Pernambuco. The capital of the first, the city of Natal, is the most insignificant of the northern coastal cities of Brazil ("Natal is not a city", say the neighbors). Ceara's long coast lacks suitable ports for large ships. The village of Aracati and the capital, the city of Fortaleza, are the most important trade squares.


(III) The history of the province of Piaui dates back only to 1673, when Domingos Afonso left his Fazenda Sobrado, located on the Sao Francisco River, and penetrated the neighboring land, both to found cattle ranches for himself and to contain the Indians of that district, who sometimes bothered him. These Indians were, at the same time, pursued by a belligerent Paulista, Domingos Jorge, who influenced the Indians to cooperate. These two enterprising men came together to seize the few primitive inhabitants of the territory, finding them very suitable for the establishment of their cattle ranches. How far the first of these colonies extended into the newly conquered district, it has been mentioned before.

At about the same time the territories of Pernambuco and Maranhao were also colonized, and its importance to the neighboring provinces, where its cattle were soon being taken, grew so rapidly that, as early as 1718, it was declared a captaincy; In the meantime, however, the Maranhao's captaincy was awarded in the administrative sense as for the business of justice, to that of Bahia; and, in spiritual matters, that of Pernambuco. The indigenous tribes, living in the province at the time of the first colonization, were divided into small hordes and moved from one colony to another, living by fishing in rivers and ponds.

Extensive tall forests are missing here, so their way of life was different from that of the neighboring Indians of Maranhao and Goias. The earliest tribes of the province are the Geicians (iahycos, iaicos) in the western part; the Pimenteiras, the acroas (acroazes, warehouses) and the Gogues (gongues), to the south and southwest; and the Timbiras, northwest of the territory. As they live so widely on newly colonized lands other than the Timbiras, it was not difficult to render them harmless, to drive them away from the colonies, or even to domicile them in regions far from their native lands. In 1762, the province was declared independent, having been given a year earlier the garrison of a

Dragon Company, and thereafter had its own governor. Although this population is extremely scarce, given the extent of the territory, the province of Piaui has a very considerable income, an annual average of 160: 000 $ 000 to 170: 000 $ 000 (in the year 1821, 165: 959 $ 809). Debts are insignificant and can be repaid annually. The most important source of income of the province comes from the raising of cattle, because with the slaughter of each ox, each piece of skin, each leather and each arroba of dried or salted meat exported, a small tax is levied.

This was the population of Piaui province in 1819, according to official records :
Whites l I.671
Blacks………………………………………………. 21.526
Colored 38.173
Total ............................ 71.370