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from Nassau, under whose direction the Dutchmen made the happiest progress, and left many useful institutions, such as fortifications and various buildings. Also the government of the Dutch improved the sugar trade with Brazil. The trade, from the province to the motherland, after the restoration of the independence of Portugal, was exploited and protected by a company of barons, which, in fact, was suppressed (1721), but was later restored with redoubled energy by Dovecote (1759). This company, as well as the Grao-Para and Maranhao Company, instituted almost at the same time, had an advantageous influence on both trade and the progress of farming and settlement.

Sugarcane plantation

Sugarcane planting has increased considerably, and in the last decade of the preceding century it has also extended to much of the interior. In 1676, a proper bishopric was created in Pernambuco, as well as in Rio de Janeiro and Maranhao, which was not limited to the borders of the captaincy, but extended beyond to part of Minas Gerais and Goias.

The high jurisdiction for Pernambuco, as well as the northern provinces, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraiba and Ceara, is waived by the Bahia State.

Prior to the recent breakdowns, the Pernambuco province included the extensive territory south of the Goiania River to the Sao Francisco River, whose left bank forms the border with Bahia and Sergipe d'EI-Rei and north of the Carinhanha River, a tributary of the latter, to the watershed between the Sao Francisco River, Tocantins, Gurgutia, Piaui and Caninde. Recently, the southeastern part, which forms the region of Alagoas, was separated as an independent province.
According to the list of Mr. Adriano Balbi, the province of Pernambuco, which comprised the provinces of Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceara, in the years 1821-1822, had the following population:

Whites •
Indigenous •
Free colored ...., , . 67.000

Slaves 28.000
Free blacks ...................., 36.000
Black slaves ... , 495.000


(Perhaps the number of slaves is exaggerated.)

The city of Recife formerly shared, with the neighboring city of Olinda, the right to have the governor at its headquarters.


Accentuating the decay of this last city, which is attributed to the occupation of the Dutch, Recife was forever the seat of the government and the authorities in finance and administration, the ombudsman, and the traveling judge. It had a school, six convents and a hospice, a magnificent episcopal palace, a hospital and a leprosario. Three neighborhoods of the city are connected only by bridges. Recife, to the east, is mainly devoted to commerce; In it are warehouses and shops and customs.


It is built on the southernmost tip of a narrow, sandy promontory, defended by several forts. Between it and the mainland is the second quarter, the neighborhood of Santo Antonio on an island.


In this are the old Jesuit building, now the governor's residence, and many large, stately homes. The third quarter, the Boa Vista neighborhood, stretches on uneven ground across the mainland, and there lies mainly the people of industry,

Boa Vista industrial area today

whose work has no connection with the port. Also there are rich traders residences there, surrounded by gardens and enjoying fresh air. This part of the city is always growing.

Recife's harbor is formed by cliffs, which give the place its name, and the harbor extends almost parallel to the mainland near the city. The opening in the reefs, through which one enters, is narrow and requires the utmost caution. The port is divided into two parts by a shallow channel.

Port of Mosqueiro

To the south, the Mosqueiro Port, closest to the Recife neighborhood, lends itself to smaller ships; to the north, the Poro is intended for