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for years. The hospital, specially designed for soldiers, contains 40 beds. The main church, dedicated to Our Lady of Vitoria, and the two chapels, are insignificant buildings. The Jesuits had here a college, currently home of the priest, who has the authorization of the Bishop of Maranhao to perform certain functions, which are the responsibility of this latter authority. Beneath the governor, who is entirely independent of Maranhao, however of a lower rank, are the usual finance and administrative officials, as well as an ombudsman, who, however, is not trained. Here is the headquarters of the commander of the two line troop companies, which constitute the entire garrison of the province. The entire population of Piaui was then 71,370 souls, and the armed citizens were organized into three cavalry and two infantry regiments.

Province of Maranhao

Province of Bahia, Pernambuco, Piaui, Ceara and Maranhao

In view of the great distance that this small town is from the coast (as the capital of Pernambuco, Recife, is 200 leagues to the east and the capital of Maranhao, Sao Luis, 100 leagues to the northeast), it is no wonder that civilization is slow, but here there is simplicity, benevolence and hospitality, which are preserved so well in these isolated locations. Oeiras, in civilization and wealth, is inferior to

Coast of Parnaiba today

Vila de Parnaiba which, due to its situation on the coast and the considerable trade of cotton, tobacco, leather, talc and salt meat, flourishes more than all the other villages of the province.

Oeiras today

It turns out that Oeiras itself was not even the emporium for products from within the province; In fact, the other villages, Pernagua, Jerumenha, Valenca, Campo Maior, Marvao, take their goods, either directly to the sea, to Bahia, Parnaiba and Maranhao, or to the village of Aldeias Altas, which, situated on the Itapicuru waterway, is most appropriate for the trade of Maranhao. The region of Oeiras is like an artist’s palette, and presents varied aspects between the various hills and hills of reddish grains, sometimes rising above the terraced plain, sometimes steep, sometimes naked or with pastures of tall greyish green grasses, sometimes with a view closed by leafy and low trees. The traveler realizes that the idyllic nature of the region corresponds to the likeness of the character of the inhabitants; he willingly lingers in the shadowy places, surrounded by long hedges of small squash and passion fruit, or near the crystal-clear springs that spring up here and there from the rocks. Also the mineral wealth of the region could offer us interesting observations.

It is said that near the Royal Farm of Caxe, 10 leagues from Oeiras, there is sulfur in large quantity. We would gladly examine this interesting mineral in loco; but our health forbade us