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1819, from 8 $ 400. In 1818 the Caninde Inspection, the largest of all, sold 1,100 heads and earned the king $ 8,000. The farms (which are part of it) of Castelo and Campo Grande annually supply 200 heads; Pocoes de Baixo and Ilha and all the smaller ones, from 70 to 100 head of cattle. All three inspections sell some 3,000 oxen each year, which, each valued at $ 6, yields only $ 18,000. This yield could certainly be much higher if less cattle were used for their own farms, as many raise 700 to 800 steers in the happy years up to 1,000; but a number of heads are slaughtered to feed the service staff; many calves are victimized by eating poisonous herbs, or by the pursuit of insects, bloodthirsty bats and ravenous jaguars;

Poisonous snakes also decrease the number of the herd. Although many of these farms employ about 20 slaves, half of which are enough to guard a herd of 1,000 heads, they do not cultivate the maize and cassava necessary for their consumption, but are almost exclusively engaged in cattle raising. Perhaps there is no country, opulent in natural gifts, with as few dwelling houses as here. The farms were primitively divided into extensions of three square leagues, and separating them was a league of neutral ground in which the neighboring cattle could graze in common.

Only rarely are the so-called cooperatives, usually blacks or mulattoes, built here and there in the vast expanse of this domain with small dwellings or backyards,

because the owners of large farms do not want to give up any part of their land. They consider the large extensions indispensable to cater to the breeding of their cattle. Admittedly, at the time of the drought, it is also necessary to move the cattle to larger areas, alternating pastures, so that they can find dry grass and fruits; only the construction of troughs and waterways, artificially assembled in the various regions, could counteract all the ruinous consequences of prolonged droughts. With this, it would also become possible to increase the population in a reasonable way, and to give this beautiful territory the high importance that belongs to Brazil, thanks to its natural gifts.

Between the Campo Grande and Castelo Farms we had to climb a part of the

Serra Imperial

Serra Imperial, a mountain with the formation already mentioned, with characteristics similar to those of Topa and Serra Branca. As compensation for the fatigue on the impassable path with rolling pebbles, we were compensated by the fields covered with verdant young gtasses and scattered groves of catingas, which we passed, before reaching Brejo Farm, where the head of the Inspectorate of