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Carnaubais palm grove

groups of carnaubais, and reminded us of the buritizais of Minas Gerais. Here, too, palm trees occupy the swampy grasslands, and the banks of the streams and banks; but these palm trees do not stand out as majestic as the buritizais above the trees and shrubs that are near them, but rather appear more in the groves than in the plateaus, as in the land of Minas. Facing the Bom Jardim Farm, we find again the formation of a fine-grained, calcic stonework that forms the streams of

scattered hills, and some high, massive, isolated, quadrangular mountains, between which runs the Caninde River. This river springs from a source in the Serra da Topa and, on the other side, on the slope of the Serra dos Dois Irmaos.

Serra dos Dois Irmaos

Several streams, which are dry in the dry season, gather among green hills, whose flanks are sometimes overgrown, sometimes naked, white or reddish, which, while not grandiose, are beautiful for their variety of features. Following the course of one of these streams, I came unexpectedly into a wide open, swampy palm grove, which, having the same grain mountains in the background, formed the characteristic landscape of these regions.

Etching 56
   
On May 1, after often crossing the Caninde River in its multiple meanderings,

we reached Pocoes de Baixo Farm. This was the first of Piaui's 33 farms, which are managed at government expense. Domingos Afonso of Mafra (near Lisbon) had established a large number of farms throughout the province of Piaui after many expeditions against the Pimenteiras, Geicos and Acro indians, so he can well judge the excellence of that extensive territory for cattle breeding. After Afonso’s death, the Jesuits of Bahia inherited 30 of these properties, with the profits pledged for charitable purposes and for the founding of new farms. Following the expulsion of the Jesuits, the State reverted to the possession of these large assets, in which the 30 original farms plus the three more founded by the Jesuits are administered by three inspections. The Caninde Inspection comprises 11 farms in the Caninde River region;

Rio Caninda

the Piaui Inspection, equal number of properties, the river bank of the same name; and the Nazare Inspection, many others on the Parnaiba River, north of Oeiras.

Delta of the Rio Parnaiba

Rio Parnaiba

Each of the three inspectors receives the annual salary of 300 $ 000. The cowboys who run each of the farms and remain in service for three to five years, under orders not only from the province but also from the provincial governor. The wage of these cowboys, who sometimes serve for years until they are in possession of the proper payment, is the amount of the annual quarterly part of the cattle and horses raised on the farm. In addition, they have free room and board, right to creation

Cattle drive in Piaui today

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