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This climate extends, as well as the same resulting physical conditions, to the west of the plateau of Ceara, also to the north of the province of Piaui.

The sertanejos call this climate, as well as the kind of vegetation that is peculiar to it, agreste (rough), in contrast to the so-called mimosa. The mimosa predominates on the western slopes of the Serra, or district of Cariris-Velhos, as well as throughout the region of the Pernambuco highlands. On the left bank of the Sao Francisco River, there are regions that, mainly due to their low situation, the flat expanse of their terrain, and perhaps also by the conditions of a more constantly drier and warmer climate, belong with particular vegetation, to the aforementioned denomination of mimosa. The term mimosa is also used for the prevailing climate here, so that the sertanejos reveal, with the use of this name, the just appreciation of cause and effect. In addition, these regions, both agreste and mimosa, suffer from dreadful periodic droughts, as often happens every 10 years, when rainy weather is scarce or not at all. The earth then rips into great crevices,

the vegetation dies completely, the wild beasts and numerous cattle are victims of hunger and thirst, and the inhabitants are forced into exile. Trying to describe the physical conditions and climate of such a large territory, from which I have only been able to see a small part, the reader has the right to demand guarantees for such news. The main sources, from which I obtained them, were the simple

Cowboys in Piaui tody

tales of various cowboys who had driven cattle from Piaui to the capital of Pernambuco, and had also walked through much of this region. In addition to these, I used the remarks that Capt. Matias Jose da Silva Pereira, an architect in Oeiras, who told me of a man who had acquired a great knowledge of the climate, by extensive travel throughout this territory.

Serra dos Dois Irmaos

The Serra dos Dois Irmaos itself consists of a layered, coarse, whitish granite

White granite with Azurite

whose mica usually appears in large silver veins. Above it lie deposits of dark gray and blue-gray shale mica, often very rich in quartz and extremely hard,

Mica shale

sometimes oriented from E. to N., toward W. to S., now from N.E. to S.0. As we continued our journey from this watershed of the province of Piaui, there was no hope of finding the diverse vegetation we had seen before; Along the way, alternatives of the geological conditions were already pronounced. In many places, we noticed a hard clay, often brick red, and also with it, as in Minas Gerais, quartz fragments, lighter in color, but rather grayish, bluish, brownish and reddish, and in fractures,