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Serra dos Dois Irmaos

This Serra dos Dois Irmaos, which we climb here, belongs to the very extensive mountain range that separates Piaui from the provinces located east of Pernambuco and Ceara, at least five degrees latitude, and forms the northeastern horn of the mainland of Brazil. The news about these mountains is extremely doubtful and indeterminate, almost always due to the diversity of the names by which parts of them are designated. Most of the Portuguese atlas give the central part of them the name Serra de Ibiapaba, although this word, meaning "end of earth" (1), was originally used to refer to the northernmost irradiation of the chain, in the province of Ceara, between Camocim River and Rio Longa. For the sertanejos of Pernambuco and Paraiba, the name of the core of this chain is the

Serra Borborena

Borborema mountain range, a name that others give to the northeast branch, which forms the border between Ceara and Rio Grande do Norte. Numerous lateral branches, from which the rivers of these small provinces are born, extend in part from west to east, and some of them, such as Serra-a-tem, from the province of Rio Grande do Norte, produce gold.

Its southernmost branch should be the Serra Araripe or Cariris, which forms the northernmost boundary of the Sao Francisco River basin. According to


information obtained here, most of this extensive chain consists of granite and other primitive orogenic formations. The highest principal nuclei of it, in flattened plateaus, appear to be between 66 ° and 67 ° degrees latitude, and these appear to be separated from the western branch of the Ibiapaba mountain by a mountainous territory, which in the eastern provinces is called, without reference to the strict boundary, to differentiate it from the region on this side of the

Serra Cariris Novos

eastern slope, Cariris-Velhos, with the name of Cariris-Novos. The mountains, so branched, but not too high, in this region, are usually covered with groves, and the perennial plains have strong, rough-haired grass and bush Due to the great heat and the general lack of water, these regions of forests are especially unsuitable for farming. The temperature in this continental mountainous land is more unstable; the sky is less pure and cloudless; rain and fog are more abundant than in the eastern slope region. The rainy season begins, not in September, as in the south and near the provinces of the sea, but in January, and lasts until April. In this period, everything green flourishes with exuberance; However, during the months of August until December, the earth becomes an empty plain of death.

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1) The true meaning of the toponym Ibiapaba is what is found in Teodoro Sampaia, that of the corrupted name of ybyapaba, "the steepness of the ravines or cliffs, the cliff or cliff". (Nola da rev., Inst. Hist. and Geogr, Bras.).