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Etching 10 Catinga vegetation

groves of catingas, whose foliage was just beginning to sprout. The orogenic formation is of granite everywhere, making transition, here and there, with gneiss or mica schist, and without accented layers. In Santo Antonio, we find that the gneiss is oriented from S. E. and S. to W., in the direction N.W. and N. to W. Particularly above the mica schist, whose surface is often covered with fine white sand, we notice delicate forms of flowers and light green grasses, reminiscent of the vegetation of the lands of Minas. The path rises almost insensibly, and although we came here near the watershed of two mighty rivers, the Sao Francisco and the Parnaiba, we did not see any larger and higher mountains. When in the meantime, between the Anjico and Caboculo Farms we left the grove of catingas for deeper forest, similar to the plateaus in Minas, we saw a low mountain range, which the inhabitants call Serra dos Dois Irmaos.

Seen from Caboculo, it seemed to us a series of mountains running from S. to W., towards N. to E., with long slopes of gently sloping flanks crisscrossed by depressions. Four or five peaks stood out; low sarcal and herbs lined their slopes. We saw, rising beyond and far, a continuation of this mountain, west of Caboculo, that also has the same characteristics. In the pond of this last farm they were found to have large bones of antediluvian animals and the farmer assured us that a skull with two great horns came out of the land; but due to the height of the flood waters, we were unable to carry out investigations there. Almost insensibly, we were now making our way up the Serra dos Dois Irmaos mountain, and when we were near the small Barreiras Farm, we reached a 16-foot-wide barn, between flat hills, lined with some strong cactus trunks;

On the other side of them, we are in the province of Piaui. This gorge is not deep at all, and only the imagination of the sertanejos could find uniqueness in the equal form of the two hills, which probably gave reason for the name (1). Our barometric observations indicated a height of 1,250 Parisian feet there. The watershed between Sao Francisco and Caninde, a tributary of the Parnaiba River, appears to be a vast, gently rising plateau rather than a considerable mountain.

1) Jose Martins Pereira de Alencastro, in his "Chronological, historical and choreographic memory of the province of Piaui" ("Rev. of the Inst. Hist. and Geogr. Bras.", Tome XX), attributes the origin of the name of the Serra dos Dois Irmaos to the fact that it was found by the two brothers Domingos Afonso Mafrense and Julio Afonso Serra, who, according to the said writer, were still helped, in the debauch of the interior of Piaui, by other brothers, Francisco Dias d 'Avila and Bernardo Pereira Gago, in 1674. (Rev. Note, Inst. Hist. and Geogr. Bras.).