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and kept its inhabitants buried in the glaciers and the icy earth, it seems that the giant animal breeds of Brazil were annihilated by the gradual drying up of the swamps in which they lived.

(III) Many of the figures on the rocks of Serra do Anastacio are, without a doubt, comparable to certain engraved signs, especially those found in Siberia and the punicants; however, they are more likely to have no letter meaning and should simply be considered as more common symbols.

Rock sculptures on Rio Japura

In all the innumerable Indian tribes, which I had occasion to know in Brazil, there is no trace of writing. Nor is their language expressed through any figure that could guide the art of rudimentary writing, other than the use of the fingers and toes, in the use of numerical expression, that is, numbers are indicated by the Indians always by the extension or retraction of these fingers, also simply symbolized by these gestures, and it is therefore plausible that their first attempts at writing refer to numbers. It is up to me to decide whether the ranks and groups of ordered traces of those entries can have this or any other significance. The rock carvings, which I saw on the banks of the Japura, and which we will deal with below, undoubtedly indicate a higher degree of civilization, for when you see here a straight trace there is a curved trace at both ends. a line finished in a spiral, whose primitive type was inspired by the swirl of water, the movement of the oar.

IV) The traveler finds nowhere to get reliable news about the early history of the districts visited. The oldest documents, kept in the archives of the municipalities, refer to the foundations of the camps, the privileges granted to them by the government and the officials who presided over them; But on the state of the territory, before the period of such important foundations, it is in vain that positive clarification is sought.

V) I think of some importance to note that in no region of Brazil is there so much talk about snoring mountains, which give the sign of containing wealth in metals, as in the vicinity of Bendego and Monte Santo. Lady Maria Graham ("Journal of a Voyage to Brazil", p. 155) refers to a conical hill, Morro da Conceicao, near the place where the pure copper of Cachoeira was found, where there are often rumblings, like explosions.

VI) The carnaubeira, Corypha cerifera, Arr., is one of the most beautiful fan palm trees, wonderful, not only for its profusion in the humid terrains of the provinces of Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte, where it paints the landscape with a very charming and special aspect, but also and above all for the many utilities it offers.

Carnubeira, the wax palm

The spikes are employed as beams and slats in the construction of houses and rafts; by grating them with water, a fine starch is prepared; still green coconuts, the size of olives, are softened, then boiled with milk, and so eaten in the backcountry; when mature, they provide cattle, in the absence of other plants, sometimes the only and available food. The new leaves are covered with small white scales, and, being slightly warmed, melt, giving wax-like substance with which to make candles; treated with nitric acid, it can be excellently targeted; and by adding beeswax or talcum powder, the dough becomes more malleable and more useful.