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constant and healthier climate than in the neighboring capital. Although the sea breeze gets here, it does not suffer from harmful temperature changes, as in Bahia. The air is drier, warmer and quieter. We observed there during our stay: in the morning, between six and seven hours, the temperature from 17 ° to 19 ° R .; at 10 o'clock, from 21 ° to 23 ° R; at noon at 25 ° R .; and at sunset from 21 ° to 33 ° R. Intermittent fevers, diarrhea, gout and dropsy are the reigning diseases;


The place, however, is generally boasted of its healthy situation, and blacks are said to be very fruitful here. Most of the population drink, without inconvenience, the water of Paraguacu, which, only near the springs seems to produce fever. The conditions of sociability and civilization in this rich village are the same as those of Bahia, as they are among the many Portuguese inhabitants. The Latin school trains good students. For the founding of an orphanage, a considerable amount of 22: 378 $ 000 was subscribed by the charitable inhabitants. The time of carnival (entrudo) coincided with our stay there, which, according to custom, puts the whole population in excitement.


In fact, the grotesque masquerades of the Roman or Venetian carnival are not seen here, but the beautiful women spin passersby causing dizzying confusion with their gracious combat. All the windows were occupied by ladies who threw scented lemons (wax balls, filled with water) and seemed very glad to forget for a few days their severely watched etiquette.

Vila da Cachoeira

In the area of Vila de Cachoeira there are landscapes that, due to the green vegetation of the hills, the alternation of vegetation and the many views of the majestic river, are of particular charm. Two small streams, Pitanga and Caquende, which run fast down the slopes below, offer restorative bathing, the leafy shade of aromatic laurels, or idyllic retreats, alongside sparkling waterfalls. With joy, the European notes, that here the cultivation of the soil has already ennobled the landscape. To the east, about an hour's drive from the town, the large block of pure copper, weighing 2,666 pounds was discovered which, since 1782, has been preserved in the Royal Natural History Office of Lisbon.

Rio Paraguay

Going around the place, we found, very close to the Paraguay River, a grassy swamp and shrubbery, where large loose blocks of granite lie and that, to the north side, are surrounded by a rock of the same nature. Despite all the investigations, we found nothing in the existing form that would allow the genetic connection of the colossal metal mass to the local orogen to be admitted. We note in this granite, apart from the usual three component parts, there are

Black toumaline

rare black tourmaline particles, but hardly any kind of copper genus. As for veins or deposits, we do not notice any trace, so that the telluric origin of the block remains