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prepare by following the course established exclusively in Coimbra, and the study of medicine is also done by some in Edinburgh or Paris. The wealthy planters and other great farmers entrust the education of their children to the direction of secular priests, to whom religious instructions are entrusted on farms when they are very populous. The deficiency of useful knowledge in their children is not surprising when the parents and educators of this youth often show contempt, even fear, of a very accurate instruction.

Nevertheless, the landowners are considered to be the most important and prestigious part of the population of Bahia; they themselves consider themselves the nobility of the country, and, because of their extraordinary fortunes, occupy the first positions in the militias, which are very well organized here. These numbered at the time of our stay, according to the statement of their marshal, Mr. Felisberto Caldeira Brant Pontes, at more than 4,000 men, and were distributed in six regiments: two regiments of white, one of mulatto,

Imperial artillery

one of black, with one light artillery squadron and one cavalry squadron, the latter serving as the guard of honor to the governor. The sons of the best families protected him, and he was held in high regard. The available military force of the province of Bahia was then 23,070 men; Of these, 3,138 belonged to the line force (2,169 infantry, 747 artillery, 222 cavalry) and 19,932 were militia (auxiliary troop), being 16,687 infantry, 659 artillery and 2,586 cavalry. The city's militias are made up of the better and wealthier people in society, and they are very much in favor of maintaining order, and are therefore even more useful than the police.


The police are powerless acting without consequence, for selfish reasons and because a large number of blacks can be hired for any bad purpose.

In no city of Brazil are there as many deaths as here. The lawsuits against the killers are filed by the police officer, and then referred to the judge. Rarely are there death sentences; The most common penalty is deportation to Angola or Wales.


The Supreme Court, that is, the Relacao da Bahia, which was founded by Philip II in 1609, later suppressed by Philip III, reinstated by King Joao IV in 1652 after the restoration of Portugal, was finally named in 1809 the Casa do Porto (1). It consists of 14 judges, plus the ombudsman, the chancellor and the president. This is always the provincial governor-general, who also chairs the five-member Royal Treasury Board, and, as in the

1) In the original, it looks like this; but it must be Oporto Relation House. It was also called, formerly, House of Supplication. (Rev. Note, Inst. Hist. and Geogr. Bras.).