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which give off a strong musky smell, and thereby give the traveler warning of their dangerous presence.

View of Salvador from Barbalho Fort

On the land side, besides this fortification, there is also the Barbalho Fort that dominates, to the north of the city, the main road to the continent. The sea side is protected by many forts and batteries, jealously cared for and well equipped with artillery. At the southernmost tip of the promontory are the fort and lighthouse of

Santo Antonio lighthouse

Santo Antonio; then, next, are the marine batteries of Santa Maria and Sao Diogo; and, at the southern end, bordering the city, rising from the sea on a cliff

Forte do Mar

islet, the Forte de Sao Marcelo, commonly called Fortim do Mar. This is undoubtedly the most important fortified square; the double row of cannons flank the beach and the southern part of the harbor, whose northern end is

Fort Sao Filipe, Salvador

defended by the artillery of Sao Filipe Fort on the tip of Monserrate. The entrance to the small Tapagipe Cove is the Fort of Sao Bartolomeu. From the efficiency of these fortifications, designed to protect the most important point of the northern coast of Brazil, from the testimony of the history of the city's resistance for eighteen months by the Portuguese General Madeira against the imperial Brazilian troops (until July 2, 1823). In addition, the islands of the bay lend themselves to the creation of a few more forts in order to completely prevent any enemy occupation of this beautiful and important gulf, as nature itself greatly contributes to its safety.

The entrance to the bay, between Cabo de Santo Antonio and the eastern coast of Itaparica Island, is at most a German mile wide, and only half way east offers safe navigation to large warships. The seabed is very uneven; the eastern coast of Itaparica Island is surrounded, inland, by an underwater reef, and even near the Forte do Mar there are some shallow places where large ships may ignorantly suffer damage. In addition to this main entrance, there is another at the bottom of the bay, formed by the western shore of Itaparica Island and the mainland, which is bordered by it: it is called Barra Falsa, and is very frequented by small boats, which make the coastal trade between the Ilheus district and the capital. These boats, from Morro de Sao Paulo, can avoid the high seas; however, for larger ships the channel is not deep enough, especially at its southern entrance; and at the bottom of the northwestern bay, between the

Itaparica Island

northern tip of Itaparica, Ilha dos Frades and the mouths of the Sergipe do Conde and Paraguay River, there are dangerous places, including the Baixios d 'Alva and Salamandra, with the worst reputation, just like the stumbling blocks near Fear Island. The dangers are so much more