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darker brown color, as for bits of fat and the most unpleasant smell. Much of this article, prepared here and in other Brazilian refineries, is consumed in the country, or is used in Portuguese arsenals for the preparation of tar; Townspeople usually make with it a greasy soap, which, however, communicates an unpleasant smell to the clothes. The rest of this whale oil is mainly exported to England and France, where it is used in fabric factories and for sulfur purification. From Bahia, the fish oil is usually exported in kites of 60 to 70 canadas. We bought a canada on the occasion of our stay for 700 or 750 cruzados. (Note I).


The island of Itaparica, which we visited not only on this occasion, but also later on, coming from Bahia, is the largest of all that are scattered throughout the cove; It has six and a half leagues in length and proportional width, and 4,500 inhabitants, whose activity is attested by the extensive plantations of sugar cane and tobacco.

Cocos nucifera

Coconut trees thrive here, as well as in general in all the maritime regions of the province of Bahia, where they are planted profusely, and produce not only numerous but great fruits, judged by the softness of the pulp, and partly exported to Rio de Janeiro, where this coconut tree from Bahia does not develop so well. In addition to this, the most noble of palm species, there are, although not so numerous, on the island of Itaparica, yet another two of great use by the inhabitants of Brazil: the dende Piacaba (Elaeis guineensis, L. and Attalea funifera ).

Elaeis guineensis

Undoubtedly the first, of African origin and introduced in Brazil by blacks, it is excellent because of the oil extracted from its coconuts; the latter, an indigenous species from the coastal forests of Ilheus County and Porto Segura Province, is much appreciated for the resilient fibers of its palm stems, with which they prepare with special strands of piacaba, handles, ropes, brooms, brushes and coarse mats. (Note II).

Itaparica to Salvador, capital of Bahia

It is a few hours' sail from Itaparica to the capital of Bahia, when the sea is not rough, and we were so happy on the crossing, on November 10, that we arrived early enough to disembark our luggage to avoid the midday heat. We soon took a house in the upper city, but on the third day we moved to another room, which Mr. Felisberto Caldeira Brant Pontes (1) offered us,

(I) The full name of the illustrious Brazilian is Felisberto Caldeira Brant Pontes Oliveira and Horta 1.0 Viscount with grandeur and Marques de Barbacena), born in Minas Gerais on September 19, 1772, and deceased in Rio de Janeiro on June 13, 1842. He arrived at the post of marshal of our army, who commanded in the Cisplatina War, was deputy to Constituent of 1823, senator for Alagoas, Minister of the Empire and of Finance, and, among the diplomatic missions, that were entrusted to him in the Old World, took part in the task of obtaining recognition of the independence of Brazil by England and Portugal, as well as for the second marriage of D. Pedro I. The introduction of the Jenerian vaccine in our country is due to him and also the first steamboat that furrowed our waters. (Rev. Note, Inst. Hist. and Geogr. Bras.).