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In proximity to the village, on the tabular plateau of the mountain, arises a harder, whiter quartziferous elastic grain.

Quartz with iron oxide crystals

On flattened bare blocks, we saw irregular, seemingly meaningless designs made with red ink by the Indians who once lived here. At Morro Redondo, we found among those stones a compact, reddish granite, heading from north to south, at 22 hours; and near Brumadinho, in a clear mountain stream that is one of the main springs of the Rio Brumado, we find grown in this granite a consistent augite.


Round pebbles from this rock, a beautiful translucent green, were mistaken for emeralds in the backcountry. Then, to the north of these regions, for example, in the Serra de Itiuba, as well as between it and the Sao Francisco River, we can


see to a greater extent the presence of green pistacite in the granite, which is here also considered augite. The third formation we find is red grains without an older ore. It occupies the highest point of the mountain, as also in Brumadinho, and appears, without distinct layers at one point and another, in the thickness of many hundreds of feet. This orogeny consists of granules of white-gray quartz, in which pieces of reddish quartzite grains are included, and not infrequently have a lot of white mica.


This formation, or that of an overlapping clay, probably belongs to certain hollow kidneys of oxidized solid iron, clay, and contains a very fine red powder, which, according to the examination of my revered colleague, Mr. Counselor.

Iron oxide

Vogel, consists of iron oxide, alumina, silica and some lime and magnesium, and is used by the countrymen as a tonic. Serra de Itabira, the highest mountain in

Serra Itabira

this district, is likely to have the same formation of red, non-mineral grains on its conical ridge. We saw it northwest of Morro Redondo, rising high into the blue sky, and we estimated it must be at least 5,000 feet high. Sometimes, frosts are noticed on the picturesque peak. In the village, we were shown large pieces of


alabaster, which were supposed to be in the vicinity of the Santo Antonio River, where it appears, as they say, on whole rocks. This rock is recommended for its whiteness and purity, and is exported in large quantities to Bahia, where they carve images of saints and similar objects.

Alabaster saint

Of greater interest to the naturalist are the bones of antediluvian animals, which are found on the surface or buried in the sand, in various parts of the village

Rio Santo Antonio

district, most of them on the banks of the Santo Antonio River, and in its vicinity, on the farm of Bom Jesus de Meira, eight leagues from the village. It is said that there were found a tooth weighing eight pounds and a bone five