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as it appears throughout Minas Gerais. The reddish flesh-colored rock follows the south-west course in horizontal layers and is often crossed by strands of

White quartz

considerable white quartz. With each step we took, from the basin-shaped swamp, covered with vicosa foliage, up the mountain, more and more we found again a repetition of the same plants of Serro Frio, and particularly of the plateaus of Minas Novas.


Finally the well-whitewashed houses of the Caetite village appeared in front of us, which spills down a hill surrounded by swamps, offering weary travelers a hospitable roof.

Caetite (or Vila Nova do Principe), due to the similarity of its climate and vegetation to those of Minas Novas, for twenty years has explored on a large scale the cultivation of cotton, and thus has become one of the richest emporiums of the backlands of Bahia. In Caetite itself, the price of six to seven arrobas for between 22 $ 000 and 25 $ 000 is established, whereas in the rest of Bahia, during our stay, it was offered for 5 $ 200 and 5 $ 800. The cotton shipped from here is not, however, produced only in the vicinity, as it also comes from the western districts of Minas Gerais. The northern and eastern regions of this province dispatch their cotton from the place of departure, in Arraial do Rio Pardo, to Bahia, by two recently opened roads, which pass through Conquista and Gaviao.

Conquista road today

On the nearby mountain, especially on the northeastern slope of the Serra de Sao Vicente, there were undoubted traces of gold. On the other hand, the beautiful


amethysts, famous for their dark color, are found as an important article of commerce, and were found ten leagues from here, on the way to Rio Pardo, and are being bought mainly by the jewelers of Minas Novas.

The inhabitants of the industrious settlement gave us occasion to exercise our medical profession; They came to see us about tuberculosis, hydro-peaks and there were patients with rheumatic ophthalmia. After the sun had set, we had scarcely retreated to the bedroom, and behold, one of our servants warned us, afraid, that they were looking for an intruder; he had just finished speaking, and a large man in a hurry, armed with a knife and a pistol, entered boldly; He pushed the servant out, and without greeting anyone, began to undress, saying, "Foreign gentlemen, treat me, but hurry, because I can't linger here!" There appeared in his body, worthy of an Achilles, many marks and the repugnant consequences of debauchery; he demanded immediate treatment, with sassy jokes and arrogance. His almost white face, expressive and with beautiful features, revealed