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rum, etc. With the same intention, sometimes appear in the river the Carajas, a small weak tribe, which already plants pineapples, corn, bananas and cassava, prepares with the root of the latter a kind of bread and a fermented drink; they inhabit the higher regions during the rainy months; and in the dry season they settle near the river.

In order to defend the travelers of Tocantins against these Indians and to accomplish the most necessary things, as far as possible, in less distant places, the government has already taken certain measures, which, until now, barely meet their ends. The plan consists of the organization of a shipping company in order to prepare safe harbors, warehouses of goods and replenishment, and to remove the difficulties that, here and there, impede the navigation of the river. Although the shareholders were assured big profits, the company, as we know, has not yet formed. The founding of a village, Sao Joao das Duas Barras, at the

Founding Sao Joao das Duas Barras

confluence of Araguaia with Tocantins, was already decreed in 1809; But there are so many obstacles there that, on the occasion of our stay in Vao, the village of Sao Joao da Palma promised much more advantage, which located in the Rio das Palmas bar, it hosts the region of Duas Barras. The Arraial de Sao Pedro de Alcantara, which was founded north of the Manuel Alves Grande River, is also poorly sustained, providing less aid to navigation than the farms in Maranhão. founded in Mirador and other places, above the confluence of Tocantins with Araguaia,

partly surrounded by enemy tribes, for the landing of travelers, and provided for the strictest needs. Through these farms, a communication of the Tocantins River has already been reestablished with the Pastos Bons backwoods, within the Maranhao captaincy. While, however, the province of Goias, due to its main production of cattle, deals more with Bahia, Pernambuco and Rio de Janeiro, than with Para, which is supplied with beef cattle by Joanes Island at the mouth of the Amazon; and in the west, instead of beef, the people are usually fed with meat from the great turtles; - In the meantime, the navigation of the Tocantins will not have frequency; the beautiful river will only have its full meaning for the central province of Brazil, when an appropriate industry develops there.

Province of Goias
Goias, which for the most part rises in vast plateaus and is traversed by mountain ranges of many branches, generally shares the climate of its eastern neighbor, the province of Minas Gerais. The atmosphere is clear and the heat has no large variants or sudden changes. The rainy season begins in November and lasts until April. During this period, it rains more in the mountains, less in the plain.