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canned quince. Part of a load brought Turkish wheat, salted meat, bacon and cachaca, and so equipped we could be confident of the happy success of this perilous journey.

The heat, day by day, had increased in Salgado; at nine o'clock in the morning the thermometer read 18 ° or 19 ° R .; and at two o'clock in the afternoon it went from 22 ° to 23 ° R. A warm east wind blew over the fields, often accompanied by morning or noon, violent thunderstorms. With this atmospheric state, the vegetation in the vicinity of the river had almost died, and it seemed to be numbed by winter in its bleached and toasty garments until the rainy weather began. All the more joyfully we greeted then the green bushes of Combretum, Inga, Petrea, Coccoloba, Hyptis, etc., when, on our first day of march, on our way to the far-away Sumidouro Farm three leagues to the southwest, we entered a pleasant narrow swamp, which opens between the mountains of Serra Calcaria.

Combretum purpureum

Inga adiantifolia

Petrea volubilis


Hyptis hirsuta

Gradually the slope rises, and, after a march through the marsh, the traveler finds himself on the highest part of the river, which, in its features, resembles the eastern one between Contendas and Salgado. We were increasingly convinced that in the system of the Sao Francisco River and its tributaries, a characteristic vegetation predominates that, from its banks, as a central point, extends east and west, along the deep margins of the tributaries of the main course. The water, as well as in its own banks, appears particularly as scrubland, locked with vines, and displays the characteristics of limestone formation. This vegetation, which can be called the general name of Catingas, is among the virgin forest in the center, and is also distinguished from the Catinga groves of the western slope of Serra do Mar. Consider the fact that here are Catingas where most

#10 A forest leafless because of the heat, which they call Caatinga, in the southern desert of the province of Bahia

of the other plants are also smaller, are in thicker scrubland, and often form as plateaus. In the flora of the Sao Francisco River, there is a decisive preponderance of plants of the families of Terebintaceas, Scrofularias, Verbenaceas, Nopalaceas, Malvaceas, Labias, Solanaceas, Euforbiaceas and Convolvulaceas, Piperaceas, Acantaceas, Borragineas, Rutaceas, Sapindaceas,

Family of Verbenaceas, the Petrea martiana

Nopalacea, the cactus

Malvacia family, Hibiscus lambertia

Euphorbiacea family, Croton penicilla

Convulvulus jalapa

Rutacea family, the Decagonocarpus

like in the fields, but rarer than in the coast groves; On the other hand, only a small part is occupied by the Liliaceas, Orchids, Rubiaceas, which appear so

Orchid family, Cattelya eldorado

profusely in both forms of vegetation. and the Mirtaceas, Malpighiaceas, Apocineas, Centaureas, Lauraceas, Gramineas and Restiaceas, which


Laurus sassafras

predominate in the fields, or the Lecithideas, Gesneriaceas, common in the virgin forest, are here very few, even rare. Legumes, such as Mimosas and Cassias, adorn this flora, while the flora of the fields has greater profusion

Lecythis ollarea

Gesnera bulbosa

Mimosa hirsutissima

Cassia bauhinafolia