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but here it is almost forbidden here. This is presumed to be due in part to the nature, not corresponding to this climate, of the saltpeter coming from the Portuguese colonies of East India and the caves of the Sao Francisco River to Rio; and also due in part to the quality of the coal used in the manufacture of gunpowder. We did not know what coal was preparing here; However, when traveling inland, where the purchase of gunpowder from the coast is very difficult and expensive because of the considerable taxes on foreign powder, some people from there assured us that for their particular use they prepared a very resistant powder according to the well-known mixture with charcoals of various species of Corindiuva (Celtis). However, the preparation of any gunpowder is forbidden to the citizens, even though it is much inferior to the English in strength and resistance.

The Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon region, as well as the neighboring neighborhoods of Botafogo and Catete are considered especially healthy, and many of Rio's wealthy citizens have summer homes on these sides, where they spend the months of the beautiful season of the year. The streets that go there are very popular with horse or cart riders. Also the plague of mosquitoes plagues is less here, where the sea inlets are less deep and windier than on the opposite side of town, like in the suburb of Sant'Ana.

These voracious and boring insects preferentially reside in the mangrove swamps, in their muddy surroundings, and usually persecute mankind, especially before sunrise and sunset. Our friend Consul-General von Langsdorff had bought, shortly before our arrival in Rio de Janeiro, a large property on the Minas Gerais road to the north side of the bay, and had also started a cassava plantation there, as well as construction of a country house, besides the necessary buildings for mining. We gladly accepted his invitation to tour these new facilities with him, whose richness in natural wonders he made us a seductive description.

Langsdorff's Mandiocca Farm

Because of the great frequency of travelers, and especially those who go to Minas, between the Rio and Porto da Estrela, boats daily set sail there, between eleven and twelve o'clock, as soon as the wind blows and they arrive in the afternoon; On the other hand, boats run regularly from Porto da Estrela as soon as the sun goes down, travel all night and, at dawn, reach the city. In one of these large-sized barges with a single sail, we boarded one day. The wind was weak and carried us along some bare cliffs that rise