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Remember the Rainforest 1



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(1)The ordinance, which was later also extended to the other captaincies we traveled to, read as follows: "Send El-Rey Our Lord to all Military or Civil Authorities to whom it is presented, and their knowledge to belong, if not put the free journey of Mrs. Spix and Martius, Members of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Munich, to whom Her Majesty has granted the necessary permission to travel and take whatever time is convenient to them anywhere within the limits of this Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, and determines His Majesty to give them in their delegation all the assistance and assistance they need as soon as they ask for it.Palace of Rio de Janeiro on September 12, 1817. - (LS) Joao Paulo Heifer."

(2) Arachis hypogaea, L. - In addition to the interest that this plant, for its oilseeds has for the rural economy in the warm countries, and a real wonder for the naturalist, because it hides its flowers in the ground as soon as it has to lay the seeds.

(3) One of the commercial commissions in London on December 18, 1812 settled some further points, the determinations of which were not quite pointedly stated. English-made objects pay 15 per cent of their import value in Portuguese customs. For various articles, however, it should be considered by the Portuguese officials not the current price, but the price stipulated in the Tariff as a standard for the tax, so that, in the fall of prices with increasing competition, import rates for many articles thus rise to 25 per cent of the value. The Portuguese themselves paid 16 per cent before the Royal Customs Warrant on May 2, 1818. Very favorable to British trade and particularly the then-agreed stipulation, equally existing between Naples and England, that English goods, whose valuation declared by the importer to appear below price, can only be accepted by Customs officials when the tax paid is refunded. and 10 percent more compensation than the declared value.

(4) To give our readers an accurate idea of the principles recently observed by the Portuguese government in determining taxation, we briefly cite the main decrees of the last Customs report of May 2, 1818, which was concluded during our stay: In Customs of the Kingdoms United States of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, as well as in all Portuguese possessions, will be paid the existing import and export taxes of all objects, without any exception, even when they belong to the Royal House, and all prerogatives and privileges accordingly. cease to apply from now until twenty years from now. Imported foreign wines pay three times the tax of nationals; the same as foreign brandy that pays two and a half times more.

(5) Every new black man who, above the age of three, enters Brazilian ports, imported from Africa, pays, in addition to the existing old tax, which amounts to $ 6,000, plus $ 9,000, half of which must be deposited with the Bank of Rio de Janeiro to form actions aimed at founding colonies for white settlers. Each arroba of salted dried meat, when exported from Brazilian ports on foreign ships, pays 600 kings; when in Portuguese ships 200 kings.

Gold and silver jewelry, cut diamonds and other precious stones pay two percent exit tax. All articles of Brazilian trade, which until now had not been taxed, pay from now on two percent, as equivalent to the so-called Consulate Taxes, which before the freedom of trade was to be paid in the customs of Portugal. (These certain taxes are settled according to the different tariffs of each port), Goods manufactured in Portugal which do not enjoy any exceptions such as those of manufacture; nationally, they receive a five percent discount on imports into Brazil.