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America, and they must have complained to Regent D. Joao that here one should first take care of the refurbishment of public buildings, even before the thought of giving them the firm new foundations. The arts of fine painting and architecture are not yet very common here; therefore, also in churches, instead of artistic pieces, golden ornaments take their place.

On the other hand, the music, among Brazilians, and especially in Rio, is cultivated with more taste, and in that sense a certain perfection would be reached very early. The Brazilian has, like the Portuguese, talent for modulation and harmonic progression, and sings with the simple accompaniment of the guitar. The viola, as in southern Europe, is the favorite instrument here; The piano is one of the rarest and is only found in the homes of the wealthy. The popular songs, sung with the accompaniment of the guitar, are originally from Portugal, partly inspired by indigenous poetry. By the singing and the sound of the instruments, the Brazilian is easily stimulated to dance, and expresses his youthfulness in cultured society with delicate movements; in the lower classes, however, it manifests itself with gestures and contortions, such as those of blacks. The Italian opera has so far presented neither the singers nor the orchestra anything perfect; a strange band of vocal and instrumental music, which the heir prince formed with indigenous and black mesticos, strongly manifests the musical talent of the Brazilian. D. Pedro,


who seems to have inherited from his grandfather D. João IV notable taste for music, often conducts this orchestra, which, therefore, seeks to perform the pieces with great perfection. Haydn's favorite disciple, the gentleman Neukomm, is now director of the Paco Chapel in Rio. However, at his masses, composed exclusively in the style of the most celebrated German masters, he was still not reflecting the musical culture of the people. The elevation that the genius of David Peres gave to Portuguese religious music (1752-1779) has passed, and today the Mass is required to have cheerful music, and, after a long and pompous Gloria, Short Creed should follow. Under these dictates, composer Marcos Portugal is today the most acclaimed composer among the Portuguese.

The state of development of music in the upper society of Rio and the other coastal cities of Brazil corresponds entirely to the love with which poetry and beautiful lyrics are cultivated here. French literature, which has also conquered the finest illustrious layers in this country, is preferred. The spread of the French language and the introduction of a huge amount of their books surpasses anything imaginable, especially since in Rio de Janeiro there are only two badly supplied bookstores. Besides the news of the day, which