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here improved faster than anywhere else. The presence of the court is already beginning to favorably influence the architectural taste; among other examples, the new mint and several private houses in Catete and Mata-Porcos testify to this; Granite quarries are ceaselessly mined, either to make roads for easier communications, or to beautify the new buildings. Among the churches, which contain neither beautiful paintings nor great architectural style, but have rich gold, stand out in particular Candelaria, Sao Francisco de Paula for its good construction and Nossa Senhora da Gloria for its situation high up above the city. The most beautiful and useful monument of architecture, of which Rio can boast so far, is the aqueduct, completed in the year 1740, a copy of the unique work in its genre in Lisbon from the time of Don Joao V, and from its high areas water flows to the city's drinking water sources. The largest of these sources, the Praca do Palacio fountain, right next to the port, supplies the ships and is always

Praca do Palacio fountain

surrounded by bands of sailors from all nations. Captain Cook, without any reason, doubted the excellence of this water for long sea voyages, as Portuguese sailors had taken it to India and then back to Rio de Janeiro without being corrupted. New fountains are still being placed in the city, and during our stay a new fountain was being set up in the great square of Sant'Ana, and a new water pipeline to the southwest side of the city. In a city so hot and populated, the Government's attention is rightly turned to the abundant supply of fresh drinking water; Only distribution by low-order blacks, who offer water in open containers or barrels, sometimes exposed to the sun for hours, should draw the attention of the police and public hygiene in order to end this. The government would also gain appreciation if, for the sake of the population, it piped water to the private homes.

View from Gloria church

The bay of Rio de Janeiro, one of the most beautiful and vast in the world and the key to southern Brazil, has been carefully fortified by the Portuguese for a long time. The sudden seizure of the city by the French, commanded by Duguay-Trouin (1711), which imposed a ransom of 246: 500 $ 464 (800,000 guilders), must have soon drawn attention to the need for such arrangements. The entrance is, above all, defended by the fortress of Santa Cruz, built on a tip of land at the base of the rugged Pico Hill, and by the fortifications bordering them, north of Pao de Acucar, Sao Joao and Sao Teodosio. The strait formed by these two points, only five thousand feet wide, is defended by the


Etching #29, Flora Brasiliensis 1840