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at the bottom of the valley between this mountain and the branches of Congonhas do Campo, where above the quartzite, at one point and another, iron ore deposits or so-called itabirite occur; we reached the Morro do Cascalho, garnished with the grotesque tree lilies (Vellosia), and finally returned to Vila Rica.

Tree lilies in Minas Gerais

A few days after this excursion, we set off for the village of Antonio Pereira, five miles far north, to learn what was done with our mules, who, during our stay in Vila Rica, had been sent to the pasture. After we had climbed the crest of the Morro de Vila Rica,

Morro de Vila Rica

where there are rheas next to beautifully colored Lisianthas on the road, we

Ostrich family-rheas

crossed a league from the city, the Corrego de Andrada, from Rio das Velhas. It is a very insignificant current, which goes on from there in the direction NW. It passes Sabara and flows into the Sao Francisco River near Sao Romao.

On a large roadside cloister farm, a lot of twenty-two-carat gold from the iron ore filets was once washed. Also, in general, the whole Serra de Antonio Pereira corresponds, in its essential part and conditions of deposit, to the auriferous Morro de Vila Rica; for it also consists of white elastic gneiss with a mica schist deposit containing oligyst and a large layer of overlapping iron. Among the vegetation of this mountain, seeming to belong mainly to places of iron deposits, there is also an abundance of molasses grass, which is seen everywhere in Minas, and that, due to its delicate texture and the oil that covers it, the preferred food of horses and mules, which, however, swell when they overeat it.

Molasses gras

Antonio Pereira's gold mines a few years ago produced a good amount of gold; among others, a miner discovered at a depth of sixty feet in two months twenty-four thousand cruzados; however, as mining was done without method or care, the pit collapsed, burying fourteen workers, and the waters, bursting wild, made it impossible for the service to continue. Not far from the village in the pleasant valley lies a very compact, larch-gray limestone that occurs in a thick layer and extends far up the mountain. In this limestone rock, probably belonging to the primitive formation, which in the cracks sometimes presents an infiltrated layer of limestone sulfur is a cave with stalactites, which was transformed into Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Lapa.

Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Lapa

Northwest of Antonio Pereira, Mr. von Eschwege established a small iron forge, headed by a German foundry master. It