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than at lower latitudes. Thunderstorms usually come from N. and N.W.; The prevailing wind during cold weather comes from S.W. and W. Sugarcane cultivation thrives in the lowlands of the rivers, but is not widely spread; coffee cultivation was even less attempted; On the contrary, they get rich harvests of Turkish wheat and various kinds of beans, as well as, in the southernmost part, wheat, cereals and flax. Fruits of Caucasian origin, especially apples and cherries, give much, and so do all European vegetable species.

Sao Paulo to Vila Rica

The traveler, who goes from Sao Paulo to Vila Rica, will easily notice, with more rigorous observation, that the whole feature of the territory is gradually changing, after having crossed the watersheds that, to the south, directs the waters of the Rio Grande, and, to the north, those of Sao Francisco. While the Rio Grande, far from the tumult of its fall, says goodbye, as it were, to the native mountains of the lowlands to the west, it prepares the traveler at the same time for great panoramas, which await him. as he proceeds further north. The mountains are growing higher and steeper, the deeper valleys are massive hollows, those in the peaks or in the valley most often interrupt the beautiful green grassy slopes; the fountains rush quickly below; sometimes the traveler is in a high vantage point, from where a panorama is unveiled of the greatest diversity of ridges and deep valleys, and now he is enclosed in ample, abrupt cliffs. Everything is constantly displaying truer alpine, heroic-romantic form.

Serra Mantiqueira

We followed, northwest of the Rio Grande Pass, on other branches that form the branches, linking the Serra de Capivari and Viruna (1), and on the surface there are different loose pieces of iron from mining and, among them, were piece of oligisto. The region is idyllic, however, lonely and deserted. The very long fences that run along the slopes of the valleys and separate the pastures of each farm are almost the only vestiges of life, indicating that the country is inhabited; The farms’ addresses, however, are usually hidden in the neighboring fences.

On one of these farms, Vitoria, where we stayed overnight, there was a large ranch built of stone. The construction of these collective shelters resembles those of the Persian caravans or the Khans of India. Any traveler has a right to them,

Farmjouse in Minas Gerais

and therefore makes no commitment to the farmer, other than the payment that is generally made to him from twenty to sixty cents for pasture at night in the pen. The road follows from here towards N. N. E. over several mountains with rounded, peeled or trimmed heads of some Compostas,

Composta, Ambrosia

(1) Probably Vituruna (currently Ibituruna), by ijyty, "serra", and una, "negra" (Rev. Note, Inst. Hist. And Geogr, Bras.).