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of the Grande and Paranaiba Rivers. All these mountains, whose fundamental consistency is especially the itaculumite, contain in both their escarpments the richest deposits of precious metal. They form the main nucleus of all the mountains in the interior of Brazil, and from its core flow three considerable rivers - the Tocantins, the Sao Francisco River and the Parana, in three different directions, to the sea.

Only the northeastern part of this territory, from which the Parana River is born, and the eastern boundary are marked by those mountains, which we now travel, and whose nature and formation we seek to describe. In addition, to the west, and unlike flat terrain, it only rises in hills of gentle slopes and solitary spines, in which itacolumito is largely disseminated, in continuous proximity to iron, platinum and gold. On the right side of the river flow several important tributaries, Tiete, Paranapanema and Iguacu or Curitiba, all with fiery falls sometimes interrupted by cataracts; to the west is the Pardo River, with its source in the Camapua Mountains, the only major tributary. The lowlands and above all the banks of that river are covered with thick scrubland, though not very high, but the vast majority of the surface has gray-green hairy bushes and grasses, and has fields beyond sight, pastures with countless cattle, to which the inhabitants gave the name of Campos Gerais for its uniformity and length. Among the bushes, which at one point and another occupy large stretches of these meadows, are the mate or congonha (Cassine congonha Mart.), the dwarf cashew tree (Anacardium humile Mart.) and numerous species of malpighias,


myrtles and guabirobas (Psidium), constituting the dominant and characteristic forms. The quality of the terrain, according to the information we have obtained, is in most of this region identical to the one we observed on our trip, that is, mica schist or primitive granite. This rarely appears, it is said, because the people of the province of Parana employ in the construction of walls a tabatinga, which, here and there, forms deposits on the banks of the rivers and baked in a fire, becomes white. Also, as regards the climate, the entire river basin is characterized by great equality, since the elevation above the sea, in the northernmost and most mountainous part of it, compensates for the greater distance from the equatorial climate. Neither heat nor cold is excessive in this healthy area; However, not infrequently in the cold months (May to October), frost falls in the mountains. The average heat of the year seems to be below 150 or 160 ° C of the Reaumur thermometer. The difference between water and air temperature, as well as between night and day, is relatively greater than