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experience has taught Brazilians that the granting of ample sympathy, accompanied by the goblet of rum, has a better effect on the young black men than severe punishment.

The nearby outskirts of Santa Barbara are low scrublands and beautiful grassy fields, whose wetland is inhabited by woodcocks, nighthawks and a species of nocturnal owl,

Strix albomarginata

and where a large number of magnificent Murtas, Rhexias, Melastomaceas and Labiadas thrive. Sapucai, whose banks are covered with brushwood and sebastianiana bushes, is sometimes in a plain, sometimes among hills with woods, and in the floods fish appear; Also common here are the boa, a small species of alligator, and Lutra brasiliensis (1).

Lutra brasiliensis

In the woods we notice many of those trees from which anime gum (Hymenaea courbaril L.) comes from. Here they call it jatoba or jatai. Between the cortex and the wood of this tree, there are few cracks, full of liquid resin;

Hymenaea courbaril

The large portion of the resin appears below, on the outer supporting roots of the tree, and is uncovered, usually when the trunk is felled. Beneath the old trees are sometimes pale yellow round cakes, weighing six to eight pounds, and formed by the continuous dripping of liquid resin. The purity and color of this substance depends on the land on which the cakes are formed, as brown humus or marshland gives it an essential substance, which does not exist in dry clay or sandy soil. The finest resin is the one that exudes from the bark, especially at the end of the dry season in September and October; The locals gather the drops, which are all put together over the fire to melt. The formation of the large masses of resin between the roots seems to shed some light on the origin of amber, since it is permissible to assume that the resin of this plant partly accumulates equally in the soil under the trunks that produce it before it is harvested. and rounded by the sea. Insects are also found, especially ants stuck in pieces of jata resin, as well as amber. Caiapos and other Indian tribes along the Rio Grande, on whose banks the Hymenaea form extensive woods, employ the resin as an ornament, using cuneiform or fusiform pieces in the pierced nostrils or lower lip. But from the thick bark of the tree they make small canoes, which, especially for their light weight, lend themselves to being carried by land from river to river. Also many tall-stemmed Crotons grow on the bank of Sapucai. From these trees a red resinous material is obtained, which the Indians call "dragon's blood" and use it to paint themselves.

Croton pictum

(1) Giant otter. (Rev. Note, Inst. Hist. And Geogr. Bras.).