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The orogenic element in this region is a coarse, yellowish granule gneiss which alternates at one and the other point with layers of limonite. On the road, hematite fragments often appear. Especially the scattered appearance of iron, though only in fragments, the more it becomes noticeable, the more it goes from granite to gneiss form; on the slopes are sometimes loose crystals of otahedric limonite.


The next day, we had to cross several low but closed forests again, in which we caught the small night lepidopteran Atlas (Atlas Aurora) and a new species of beetles, Lamparina, with very curved jaws, forked forward. At dusk, we left the forest and reached the village of Sorocaba, passing through high fields, covered with abundant grass.

Etching #35 Road between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo

This beautiful village is on the bank of the river of the same name, which is not considerable and runs west to Tiete, and is crossed by a wooden bridge. German workers were long awaited for the neighboring Ipanema Iron Factory, and we were soon asked about their arrival, their skills and the way the metal is manufactured in Germany.


Atlas Aurora or Attacus Aurora

So evident a show of interest in the royal establishment gave us very good opinion about the spirit of citizenship of the Sorocabans. At the time, we have also been informed that they generally enjoy a reputation for honesty and trust, wherever they appear with their troops of black mules, the sale of which is their most important branch of business. The chief captain immediately offered us fresh grapes, and as we tasted these fruits, this thought occurred to us: - Why are the grapes so poor in this area, whereas the pineapples in the province of Sao Paulo are known for their delicious flavor? Perhaps because the soil is poor in lime, and has much more clay and granite, or because the vineyard in general has not yet acclimated here. Viticulture was formerly forbidden here in Brazil, by royal decree, so as not to harm the trade of Portugal. It is now allowed and has produced many amateurish attempts.

Province of Sao Paulo

In Sorocaba we waited for the coolness of the afternoon, in order to proceed to the Sao Joao de Ipanema Factory, which was still two leagues away. We passed through fields with low hills, covered with low grass and some moldy trees, among which rises, here and there, thick and low groves, until we reached at sunset the Lugarejo. It reclines supported by the elevation of a natural amphitheater, on the shore of the Ipanema River, which widens here as a lagoon; beautiful fields form the first plane, and the iron mountain of

Sao Joao de Ipanema, Iron factory at Sorocaba