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331 are regular and 87 secular; those occupy fifteen monasteries. There were only two nuns' convents, in which there were 53 residents; since then, the proportion has not increased, and the government does not seem to want to contribute to the development of cloistered life, so unfavorable to population growth.

On the other hand, they took great care of the organization of military service in the province. Of regular troops, there is a regiment of cavalry and an infantry, which are distributed along the coast, in the capital and some other points, especially at the border customs and as detachments against the Indians.

The other citizens serve, either in the militias, of which there are eight infantry and three cavalry regiments, or in the ordinances. The militias are obliged to march, if necessary, not only within the limits of the captaincy, but also to do military service. Ordinances do not have to leave their place of residence; To them, with the exception of public officials, belong all citizens from the age of sixteen to sixty, who are no longer listed in the regular army or the militias. These recruits form the true military core of the nation and are intended particularly for the maintenance of internal order. Like the militias, ordinances do military exercises from time to time; However, its special utility is to maintain a certain military discipline among the people and to vigorously enforce the orders of the administrative authorities, since the latter, other than the officers of justice, cannot themselves act in such a sparsely populated country. The province of Sao Paulo has 157 ordinance companies. The so-called


capitao-mores are the highest ranking officers of this troop, almost like royalty, who are in direct communication with the government on many issues, for example, about public safety. The chiefs of the militia are colonies; they take care, like the capital-mores, of the order among the militias. The assignment of both of these chiefs is entirely different. Militiamen can be tried, even in non-military crimes, before a war council, and they generally prefer the council to the civil court. Ordinances, by contrast, are subject to the jurisdiction of the civil judge. The government's intention is to make ordinances awaken and maintain the military spirit among the people; but so far this effect has not yet been produced, and in fact each one relies more on his weapon and rather takes care to use it to his own advantage rather than on patriotism successfully serving the dangers of homeland. Sao Paulo militias enjoy a special reputation for maintaining the spirit of military solidarity; This was shown in the recent expedition against Buenos Aires.

Miltary departs for Buenos Aires 1816