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Fermozo, along the coast, to the south, which is the same as if it were fifty miles away from it. The road through the Cubatao (so-called this part of the mountain) must rise at some points to three thousand and more feet above sea level, and is extraordinarily steep and only passable by mules. Although much improved by Mr. Governor-General France and Horta, it only allows the output of small-scale land products, and imports are done in the same way. In order to provide the city with a single bell and some heavy cannon, it was necessary to spend an extraordinary amount.

The two other seaports of the province, Paranagua and Cananeia, the first at 55 leagues, the other at 67 from Sao Paulo, are both insignificant. They provide the

district of Curitiba (1), the true campos of the province, the necessities they receive from the ports of Santos and Rio de Janeiro, or from the northern ports, where they sail with large barges and schooners. Exports are limited, even more than Santos, to flour, beef, dried meat and some mate or tea from Paraguay. This last is an article of daily consumption of the people in the south of this province, as well as in Rio Grande do Sul and in the countries of the Plata. The tea is made with the dried and powdered leaves of the citronella (Cassine Gongonha nob.), which is usually absorbed, sucking through a thin straw.

Citronella, Cassine Gongonha

From this exposure of the Sao Paulo trade, it is proved that the proportion of wealth in current currency must be much lower here than in the northern provinces, where, due to more widespread and lucrative trade, the inclination to luxury was determined. Even in the capital itself there is almost a lack of circulating means, which is of little importance to the provincial, because in its patriarchal simplicity, it is unaware of many of the European wares and is considered richer with the production of its large herds than by the influx of European money and luxury objects.

The condition of factories in Sao Paulo corresponds to that of trade. In addition to the homemade manufacture of coarse wool cloth, they made clothes and thick white felt hats. Wealthy breeders tend to use considerable amount of leather for themselves, or brine it for export. They use for the leather tannery, here, as in Rio de Janeiro, the Rhizophora Mangle bark. The respective workers are quite skilled, although not always very fit, nor professional.

(I) The province of Parana was separated from that of Sao Paulo only in 1853. (Rev. Note, Ed. Melh.)